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Vol. VIII 


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Published by the Salem Press Co. Salem. Mass. USA 




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3TIj£ JJtassarfmscffs JHartajta. 

A Quarterly cMagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 


George Sheldon, 


Charles A. Flagq, 


Dr. Frank A. Gardner, 

salkm, mass- 
John N. McClintock, 


Lucie M. Gardner, 


Albert W. Dennis, 


Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c 


JANUARY, 1915 


€nnltni& of fl|t0 f ssue. 

A CENTURY OF PEACE, Ex-Governor John D. Long, Ex-Governor J. Q. A. 
Brackett and Charles Arthur Higgins, LL. M .... 

MRS. JAMES T. FIELDS Agnes Edwards 


MARY HARROD NORTHEND . . Charles Arthur Hlgglns, LL. M. 



JOHN N. McCLINTOCK Albert. W. Dennis 






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ON SALE. Copies of this masazine are on sale in Boston, at W. R. Clark's ft Co., 25 Tremont Street, Obi 
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Entered as second-class matter March 13, 1908, at the post office at Salem, Mass., under the act of Congress 
of March 3, 1879. Office of publication, 300 Essex Street, Salem, Mass. 



The Treaty of Ghent, signed December 24, 1814, and ratified at Washington February 
17, 1815, thus closing the "War of 1812" between this country and England, was 
negotiated by Albert Gallatin, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, James A. Bay- 
ard and Jonathan Russell. 

As both Adams and Russell were Massachusetts citizens, this State 
had a large share in the making of this remarkable treaty, and we have 
invited three* of the first citizens of the Commonwealth to contribute a 
sentiment appropriate to the anniversary: 

Ex-Governor John D. Long. 

Hardly anything in our history is more significant and impressive 
than the hundred years of peace between this country and Great Britain — 
especially that feature of it which is seen on the border line between the 
United States and Canada— extending thousands of miles without a forti- 
fication or an armed soldier upon it — happy, peaceful abode of an 

•Ex-Governor Curtis Guild wrote: "You have doubtless noticed from the news- 
papers that I have been confined to my bed for nearly three weeks with a very serious 
illness, the result of a complete break-down from trying to oblige too many who 
wish me in the general public interest to do extra outside work. It is now, of course, 
too late for me to prepare the article you desire. I can only express my regrets that 
Illness and illness alone, prevented my undertaking the task." 


industrial population with nothing to suggest that its citizens are of one 
nation on one side of the unmarked line and of another on the other. 
What a tribute it is not only to the two great empires represented but 
to the advancing civilization and sane development of international re- 
lations during the century just closing! The Treaty of Ghent settled 
almost none of the questions which led to the war of 1812. It ignored most 
of them. And yet no treaty ever laid more secure the foundations of 
peace. The Massachusetts Magazine does well to celebrate this centennial 
anniversary and to pay tribute to John Quincy Adams who was so con- 
spicuous and efficient in the negotiations. Would that the nations now 
in fierce and bloody battle, begun for no cause except for the expansion 
of the power that inaugurated it, might follow the example and make of 
the present gory and desolate fields of Europe an area as peaceful, a 
neighborhood as happy, a paradise of homes as industrious, as sweet and 
prosperous as those on which the sun of peace now shines along the 
whole northern border of our republic ! 

John D. Long. 

Ex-Governor John Q. A. Brackett. 
The fact that peace has prevailed for a century between our country 
and the nation with which it had twice been at war during the forty 
years preceding the treaty of Ghent, which terminated the second of those 
wars, is a fact at which all Americans must reoice. Massachusetts has 
an especial reason for enthusiasm over it when it is remembered that one 
of her most illustrious sons, John Quincy Adams, was one of the com- 
missioners who negotiated the treaty which ushered in this grand era of 
concord. It is accordingly appropriate that the Massachusetts Magazine 
should take an active part in its commemoration. May our descendants 
be privileged a hundred years hence likewise to rejoice over another cen- 
tury of peace not only with Great Britian but with all the other nations 
of the world. 

J. Q. A. Brackett. 


A Century of Peace. 

"I cannot close the record of this day without an humble offering of gratitude 
to God for the conclusion to which it has pleased Him to bring the negotia- 
tions for peace at this place, and a fervent prayer that it's result may be pro- 
pitious to the welfare, the best interests and the Union of my country." — 
Diary of John Quincy Adams, Ghent, Dec. 24, 1814. 

On the eve of completing a cycle of one hundred years of peace be- 
tween Great Britain and this nation, the treaty seals of which were affixed 
in Washington February 17, 1815, the nation may well intone the prayer 
entered by John Quincy Adams on that Christmas eve in far off Flanders, 
following the signing of the articles of agreement of peace affixed a few 
hours previously by the commissioners of Great Britain and the United 

We close the record of a century of peace as answer to the petition 
of our worthy representative uttered when men's thoughts were turned 
to "Peace on earth, good will toward men." Not only has that peace 
been of inestimable value and satisfaction to the principals concerned, 
but the world has been happier and better for it, as is proven by the 
deplorable but deep contrast now being enacted in the war devastated 
land where the treaty commissioners sat for four long months. 

Rulers, diplomats and nations have followed with amazement the 
years of continuous peace between two great countries where an imagin- 
ary line of three thousand and five hundred miles has been the boundary 
without either nation erecting a fort, throwing up a barricade, floating a 
war vessel or placing an armed forced or a single soldier on guard for 
the maintenance of peace or to protect their national rights. And today 
the citizens of each government feel a greater sense of security because 
of that unfortified, unarmed, unmanned boundary, stretching from the 
Atlantic headlands along its devious way to Cape Flattery and up the 
Alaskan line to Demarcation Point, than if it bristled with all the modern 
means of defense and offense of "civilized" Europe. 

The war of 1812 had been waging many months ; England's offensive 
actions had been felt twice as long ; the Czar of Russia had offered to act 
as arbitrator, a courtesy which Great Britain declined, when suddenly 
that nation offered to send commissioners to the Hague to draw up agree- 
ments for peace. The scene was shifted to Ghent, where the commis- 
sioners sat. The United States sent as its representatives, John Quincy 
Adams, Albert Gallatin, James A. Bayard, Jonathan Russell and Henry 
Clay; while those from Great Britain were, Lord Gambier, Dr. Adams, 


and a Mr. Goulburn. This nation was blessed with a commission 
strongest both numerically and in brain power ; for the British were fre- 
quently spoken of by outsiders as mere clerks of their government with- 
out initiative ability or executive power. Massachusetts furnished a 
member who had been rocked in the cradle of diplomacy, John Quincy 
Adams. Mr. Adams was in the diplomatic service ot his country at the 
«arly age of fourteen and our minister to Russia when called to this com- 
mission and immediately after was sent to the Court of St. James. Per- 
"haps no American has ever served in so many diplomatic and national 
positions as did he who became the sixth president of the United States. 
The other American commissioners were all strong men. 

Trouble had been brewing with England for years, caused by her 
■domineering acts of stopping American vessels on the high seas, im- 
pressing sailors to her own service and seizing American goods. In 1806 
Mr. Adams introduced a senatorial resolution condemning the British 
practice of searching ships and demanded the restitution of American 
property seized by Great Britain, but the administration failed to assert 
•or to enforce our rights. 

At the outsight of the peace conference the Britons assumed a lordly 
-air and demanded much — open navigation and access to the Mississippi 
river; abrogation of the rights of Americans to fish off the Canadian coast: 
unthinkable boundary lines ; all of which demands were eventually 
•dropped. The British commissioners at one time threatened to with- 
draw and to send the hero of Waterloo to America to head the British 
army and give the saucy (erstwhile) rebels a trouncing. But Wellington 
informed the British government its conduct of the war was not such as 
to support the arrogant claims of her commissioners. Luckily this was 
Defore the redcoats entered and burned Washington and peace loving, 
action-delaying Madison had fled one way, leaving Mistress Dolly to 
hide the White House silver and flee another. 

But, eventually, and suddenly, terms of agreement were reached, a 
treaty was drawn subject to the unqualified approval of both govern- 
ments and signed by the commissioners on that memorable Christmas 
•eve. While it has proved by duration to be one of the strongest treaties 
on earth, it has also proven to be one of the strangest, for on its pages no 
mention can be found of the vital causes which led to the war it was to 
oring to a conclusion. Right of search, impressment of Americans, fish- 



cry rights, all omitted ; and the boundary question to be settled by mutual 
agreement. Article ten of the treaty carried lines that foretold a moment- 
uous question for the young republic ; a question that was not settled for 
that sturdy power until a half century of peace under that treaty had 
passed. It read: 

"Whereas the traffic in slaves is irreconcilable with the principles of 
humanity and justice, and whereas both His Majesty and the United 
States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its abolition. 
it is hereby agreed that both the contracting parties shall use their best 
endeavors to accomplish so desirable an object." 

But the young nation had again proven its prowess so effectually with 
the mother country, especially upon the salt and inland seas, that the 
dignity of her citizens has never again been questioned by England. Four 
years later a special commission on the fisheries question declared: 
"The inhabitants of the United States shall have forever, in common with 
the subjects of his Brittanic Majesty, the liberty of taking any fish of 
any kind" along practically the entire coast of Newfoundland and Labra- 
dor. And while the right to land, repair and secure wood and water "and 
for no other purpose,'' within the three mile limit on other shores than 
those specifically named was acknowledged, the commissioners from this 
country omitted one little word that has proven to be a fishbone of con- 
tention these later years — "bait." Fishing for cod was all that was 
thought of in 1818. 

One event must not be overlooked, that transpired after the commis- 
sioners signed the treaty and before it could be ratified and sealed at 
Washington — before the knowledge of peace conclusions reached these 
shores at all. Wellington's veterans of the war in Spain had been hurled 
by Packenham against New Orleans, where Jackson so thoroughly an- 
nihilated them the result of the Louisiana purchase was forever clenched 
to these United States. Had the British seized New Orleans, the 15th of 
January, 1815, might have marked a date of such success possibly Great 
Britain would have refused to ratify the treaty and the United States 
have remained or reversed to an Atlantic seaboard strip. 

New Orleans made a glorious wafer seal on the articles of treaty; 
while it also stamped the death warrant of the Federalists and gave birth 
to a protective tariff for the young industries of the United States, tak- 
>ng the place of Jefferson's embargo act. 


Believing one of the greatest factors in this century of peace with 
England to be the moral stamnia of the majority of American statesmen, 
I cannot close without again quoting words of that Massachusetts born 
son of the nation, when in his diary, while in his first service in the 
Senate, after watching the methods and minds of partizan party leaders 
or workers, he wrote: 

"I feel strong temptation and have great provocation to plunge into 
political controversy. But I hope to preserve myself from it by the con- 
siderations which have led me to the resolution renouncing it. A politician 
in this country must be the man of a party. I would fain be the man 
of my whole country." 

Such was Mr. Adams' life and conduct to the end of his country 
serving career, doing much to build for that century of peace with the 
motherland, which closes with the seventeenth of next month ; only to 
open again, we all trust, to bless us with cycle after cycle of unbroken 
peace at home and abroad, that will eventually have the effect of bringing 
to all nations an eternal cessation from fratricidal strife. 

Charles Arthur Higgins, LL. M 



\ By Agnes Edwards 

There are certain personalities which would be distinguished in any 
age because of their inherent qualities: there are others which would be 
significant because of the circumstances which developed them and the 
environment in which they were placed. Mrs. James T. Fields, whose 
death marks the passing of the last of a group of famous Bostonians, will 
hold her place in the history of New England both because she was a 
charming individual, and because she was part of a very remarkable period 
in the history of American literature. ..:,.. ; a\u 

We who live in Massachusetts now have almost forgotten how the 
prestige of this section of the country came^ to be: we accept the .results of 
that golden age of letters almost as unthinkingly as the Romans accepted 
their pleasanter lot after the age of Augustus. The fine nerve of appre- 
ciation which connects the past with the present has lost its resiliency — a 
great loss, for to live in, the past completely, is to become isolated from 
living issues; to live in the present completely to become shallovy and. 
meagre in understanding. . MUii :r ,. i ,- ., .-» /: . iT , >.;• - :-^~f -f-th;::r 

As one walks down Charles Street today it seems an ordinary enough 
thoroughfare : the heavy drays and clanging cars crawl by and send the 
mud splashing up on the narrow sidewalk, and half way up- the. flat red 
brick houses : there are second-hand furniture stores : lodging houses, 
•ittle eating rooms, small tailoring shops: it is only in the imagination that 
the Charles Street - of sixty years ago still exists--leisurely, charming, 
dignified — a street of repute and exclusiveness. Here it was that Oliver 
Wendell Holmes once lived — cheerful, well-groomed, energetic — his trim 
figure a familiar sight hurrying across the Common, Thomas Bailey 
Aldrich, unostentatious in the midst of his fame, and half a score of other 
well-known men and women, making a center of culture that has tinged 
the whole fabric of New England life. Here it was that Mr. and Mrs. 




Fields dispensed a hospitality of such generosity and yet such exquisite 
simplicity that it will never be forgotten in the annals of Boston. 

Number 148 Charles Street stands flush against the sidewalk, English 
fashion, its plain brick front giving no hint of the deep richness within. 
Long after the tide of fashion swept away from this section of the city 
and long after her husband's death, Mrs. Fields stayed on, and her friends 
found their way to her as of old. Today the door through which Dickens 
bounded, when "handsome and glowing, famous over half the globe'' he 
came on his first visit to America in 1842, and through which Thackeray's 
"great burly figure, broad chested and ample as the day" passed and re- 
passed so many times during his visit to this country, is closed. The 
garden which opened down to the river where Holmes loved to row in the 
early morning, when, as he wrote "the river and the bay are as smooth as 
a sheet of beryl-green silk, and I run along ripping it up with my knife 
edge blade of a boat, the rent closing after me, like those wounds of angels 
which Milton tells of, but the seams still shining for many a long rood be- 
hind" — this garden is now deserted. But in the dim drawing room, mel- 
low with memories, still hang the autographs and portraits — among them 
an exquisite drawing of Hawthorne by an artist now almost forgotten but 
once most fondly esteemed— Rowse — . still stand the books, and still ling- 
ers that "scholarly and gentle atmosphere" which made that house what 
Henry James has called "the little ark of the modern deluge." The house 
remains, but the spirit which animated it is gone, and with its going 
Charles Street and Boston have closed one of the happiest chapters in 
their history. 

Mr. Fields, being a publisher of high repute came in contact with the 
most eminent literary men of his generation : being a gentleman of at- 
tractive personality and gifted with the keenest sense of appreciation, his 
business acquaintances became his friends. Thus it was that the pleasant 
house with its shaded lawn and ample rooms became the natural rendez- 
vous of the choicest spirits of that time, and never before or since has there 
been such an assembling of choice spirits in Xew England. Longfellow, 
beautiful and calm, Celia Thaxter "with the sea shells she always wore 
about her neck and wrists, and a gray poplin dress defining her lovely 
form," Hawthorne, that noble and melancholy figure who used to pace 
back and forth on nights when he could not sleep, Emerson who says he 
was glad that his lot was "'cast in the time and proximity of excellent per- 
sons," Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, whom Mrs. Fields describes as "beau- 



tftf* 1 "-' 

I s 


*!***. M*A^,VS& 


Mrs. James T. Field, soon after her marriage 


tiful, with heightened color, her eyes shining and awake but filled with 

great softness, her abundant curling hair rippling naturally about her 
head and falling a little at the sides." — of all that brilliant company we 
liave many souvenirs both in their memoirs and diaries and in those of 
Mrs. Fields. Of another still wider and even more illustrious company 
we have another kind of memento. Mr. Fields was a book collector, and 
on a certain shelf in the well-used library stands a priceless line of vol- 
umes. Here is a copy of Milton, printed in 1673 which Thomas Gray 
owned as a school-boy and which bears his signature no less than nine 
times upon the title page: a "Rasselas" of Dr. Johnson which contains 
an autograph letter of his: Byron's own copy of "Don Juan," a "Rape 
of the Lock" which once belonged to Charles Lamb, who has restored in 
his own handwriting several of the pages which were missing, and over 
a hundred volumes from Leigh Hunt's library in England with his vehe- 
ment annotations. Here, £00, is a North's "Plutarch" which Shakespeare 
himself might have read, and from which he is believed to have drawn 
his material for "Julius Caesar," an 1757 edition of Burn's poem with an 
autograph poem by Allen Ramsey on the first page. There are autograph 
letters from Browning, Scott, Tennyson, Dr. Brown of Edinborough, — 
one from Thackery to Mr. Fields with a neat little caricature of the pub- 
lisher by Thackery 's own inimitable pen, and an autograph letter of Gray, 
which was given Mrs. Fields by "Barry Cornwall." 

One reads in Mrs. Fields' account that "many strangers came to Bos- 
ton in those days, on literary or historical errands — men of tastes which 
brought them sooner or later to the "Old Corner" where the "Atlantic 
Monthly" was already a power. Of course one of the pleasures sought 
for was an interview with Dr. Holmes, the fame of whose wit ripened 
early — even before the days of the "Autocrat." It came about quite nat- 
urally, therefore, that they should gladly respond to any call which gave 
them the opportunity to listen to his conversation; and the eight-o'clock 
breakfast hour was chosen as being the only time the busy guests and 
host could readily call their own. Occasionally these breakfasts (at Mrs. 
Fields) would take place as frequently as two or three times a week. The 
light of memory has a wondrous gift of heightening most of the pleasures 
of this life, but the conversation of these early hours was far more stimu- 
lating and inspiring than any memory of it can ever be. There are few 
men, except Poe, famous in American or English literature of that era 



who did not appear once at least. The unexpectedness of the company 
was a great charm ; for a brief period Boston enjoyed a sense of cosmo- 
politanism, and found it possible,, as it is really only possible in London, 
to bring together busy guests with full and eager brains who are not too 
familiar with one another's thought to make conversation an excitement 
and a source of development. Reading this we begin to understand what 
an integral part of that life the Fields were, and also what a charcter- 
istic embodiment of it. Tt was not the brilliancy of the French Salon, 
that glittered in the house on Charles Street: neither was it the Bohemian- 
ism of a later day coterie of New York : it was, rather, a refined and grac- 
ious atmosphere, not formal and yet scrupulously correct, that was created 
by the host and hostess of that tranquil home, into which were welcomed 
not only the great but the humble: not only those who had achieved but 
those who were aspiring to fame. 

After her husband's death Mrs. Fields still maintained the old customs, 
traditions and friendships, keeping to the very end her interest in all mat- 
ters touching literature and fine publishing. Only a year ago she wrote 
to General Charles Lawrence Peirson in regard to a monograph of his 
just published: 

"I have long been meaning to write you a brief word about the mak- 
ing of your book in Salem. It is done with so much taste and care that 
I looked at it carefully at first to see the mark of the Merrymount Press. 

"Finding a new name (to me) and 'Salem' I really have wished ever 
since to have a bit of talk with you about the doing thereof. I think no per- 
sonal friends could have done better for your history, and if the doers of 
your book were not friends before, they have offered a new and beautiful 
tribute to the bravery which has helped save our Land." 

When one recalls that she was eighty years old when she penned 
this one cannot help but be struck by the liveliness of her mentality and 
the keenness of her appreciation. 

It was after her husband's death that she became deeply interested in 
the Associated Charities and the question of self help. In her book "How 
to Help the Poor" she shows the clear intelligence and the same restraint 
in regard to economic matters which distinguished her in the literary and 
social world. Clubs and charities in which she was interested were many: 
to all that wide procession of philanthropies which started as far back as 
T852 — the training school for nurses, the after care of women discharged 


from prison, the New England's woman's club, the Radical club, the care 
of foundling and motherless infants, the teaching the dumb to speak — she 
^ave her support. But with the exception of the Associated Charities, of 
which she was the founder, perhaps the kind of beneficence which pleased 
her best was unobtrusive — that which has no organization, no president 
and no minutes of its last meeting. The young man struggling with a lit- 
erary career, the elderly woman whose poems and occasional articles 
brought her only too meagre a pittance — to these sensitive persons who 
are the most difficult of all to help her gifts and pensions, sometimes re- 
ceived without their knowing the name of the giver, made life and hope 
possible. This is a charity which is finer than the word, and no one indiv- 
idual will ever know the extent and delicacy of Mrs. Fields' benefactions. 

Thus the life which began in social and intellectual promise, when 
"a slip of a girl" as she says, she first began meeting notable people, and en- 
tertaining them under her own roof, ended in an old age of spiritual fulfill- 

It is pleasant to hear her friends tell of the grace of her entertaining — a 
grace which remained with her until the very end, when, an old lady with 
a white lace scarf over her head, clad in white and half reclining on her 
sofa she served her guests with a dignity which made it impossible for 
them to even suggest assisting with the heavy teapot. In her hospitality 
as in her writings she was old-fashioned in a day of new fashions, main- 
taining through the vulgar buzz of change a delicate distinction, as a lilac 
tree, crowded into a city close still maintains its fragrance. Charles Street 
became a noisy thoroughfare, but the shadows on the long drawing room 
were not disturbed : in Back Bay a millionaire built a mansion, and in his 
gorgeous library was not a single book — only cut glass vases and lace 
doilies scattered on the tables and on the shelves —but in the home of Mrs. 
Fields stood in quiet security books whose binding proclaimed them 
treasured first editions and whose annotations show them the once loved 
possessions of Lamb or Keats or Leigh Hunt. The debutantes of the sea- 
son entertained at teas where low neck was en regie, and the tango was 
danced between cups, but Mrs. Fields still observed the ceremony with 
well-bred formality, and led the conversation along lofty and carefully 
chosen lines. Side by side with change she held her poise for over half a 
century, and now that she has gone Boston and New England have lost 
something that can never be replaced. 


It is this loss which makes the passing of Mrs. Fields significant. To 
her personal friends there is a personal grief, and to those hundreds who 
received her gentle aid there is a double distress. But to those other hun- 
dreds and hundreds who did not know her, but to whom Boston is dear. 
her passing will have a subtle and immutable effect. 

Such lives as Mrs. Fields add a richness to the picture of the past — 
a richness which no modern touch can simulate. Mrs. Fields is no longer 
a unique personality: she is a part of history, and with her going the 
iong "trailing clouds of glory" which were the garments of Longfellow 
and Lowell and Tennyson, have been drawn across our vision for the 
last time. The door is closed : the house on Charles Street is tenantless : 
the last hand of the past has slipped from ours. Only as we stand by the "af- 
feaced anonymous door," and realize what this house has meant to other 
lives, we seem to feel its charm even yet: 

There falls upon the old gray city 
An influence luminous and serene 
A shining peace. 





By JcDr.E Francis M. Thompson of Greenfield, Massachusetts 

Including His Narrative of Three Years in the New West, During Which 

He Took in 186*2 a 3000-mile Trip From St. Louis up the Missouri, and 

Thence Down the Snake and Columbia Rivers to Portland, and to 

San Francisco, Returning in 1863. 

(Continued from Vol. VII, No. 3.) 

Helena, Montana, Jan'y 20, 1904. 
Dear Thompson: 

Contrasting- recent winters with those you knew in the mountains, you 
would not know the country, for it is, and with the exception of less than 
a week, has been for eight months like summer ; no snow, and only floods 
of golden sunshine with warm weather. Every one here is well excepting 
me. I harbor no illusions and feel that "sleep is beginning to lay me in 
the arms of her brother." 

My trouble is of twenty-five years standing and is slowly culminat- 
ing, and though I am well and work in the office every day, it is idle 
to say or hope it can long continue. A near denoument brings no terror. 
One hates to close the rhapsody of domestic life such as it has been my 
fortune to enjoy, and leave the relatives and friends which are mine. 

And then this poor debouched state ; it needs me, being wofully lack- 
ing in men of sensitive natures who resent civic treachery as a crime. 
What with the R. Roads and copper companies, and the millionaires, 
everything is pecuniarily appraised, except the scars on a soldier. 

I have fought bribery and every form of civic corruption for forty 
years and now that it has become triumphant, I fight it still, and bear 
:ts contumely with becoming indignation. 

T have led a strenuous life for forty years, and have lived for the state, 
^m\ seeing my mistakes and omissions, know they cannot blot out my 
history, with which I am reasonably content. I have never fawned to, 
or flattered the coarse, or condoned wickedness in high places. 

But I drop this. Don't think I am to die soon. I tell you those boys 
of 1863-4, are missing, one of them being of rare occurrence. . . . No 
:»ian ever came to Montana and staid so short a time, left so deep an 
».*npress on history as did you, and it is a pleasure to know, in a rude 
tune, the influence was wholly wholesome. . . . Come and stay with 
us on your way to Portland. 

Yours very sincerely, 




When, after a long and bitter struggle, Montana was admitted to 
representation in the United States senate, Col. Sanders drew the short 
term, and at its expiration he returned to Helena and resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession, with his son. His long and faithful service ended 
in the fall of 1905, after years of suffering which he bore with fortitude 
and resignation. In his death, Montana lost a most honest, able, and 
taithful citizen. 

On the first of March, 1006, the legislature of Montana having: estab- 
lished the county of "Sanders" in honor of the man who had done so 
much for the commonwealth, the citizens met at Thompson, which was 
named as the county seat, and installed the county officers. 

"Fearless and firm, he never quailed, 
f • . ;; :: Nor turned aside for threats, nor failed 

;/....: ;: To do the thing he undertook. 

: :;:i How wise, how brave, how well, 

--;.-,-. He bore himself, let history tell." 

NATHANIEL PITT LANGFORD. I first met Mr. Langford at St. : 
Paul, Minn., in the fall of 1859. He was then cashier in the banking house 
of his uncles, W. R. Marshall & Co.. and I was in that city in the employ 
of Wall street parties who intended to start a bank of issue under the 
laws of Minnesota. The friendship then begun has since continued. Mr. 
Langford was associated with Captain James L. Fisk in organizing a 
party of emigrants to cross the country from St. Paul "to Fort Benton, 
practically upon the line of the present Northern Pacific Railroad, then 
- an unoccupied wilderness. * "\ 

The party left St. Paul, 1 May 16th, 1862 and consisted of one hundred 
and thirty men. women and children, and arrived safely at Fort Benton' 
Sept. 6th, and were soon scattered among the new mining camps in the 
mountains. ... 

Mr. Langford was one of the first at Bannack, and being active and 
energentic, in company with others erected a saw mill some ten or twelve 
miles above Bannack, near to fine timber. These ingenious men manu- 
factured the most of their necessary iron work for the mill from old, worn 
out wagons which had crossed the plains. 

In January, 1863, a party of gamblers and roughs from sneer wicked- 
ness fired into a wikiup of the Sheep Eater tribe of Bannacks, killing an 
old chief, a lame Indian, a papoose, and a Frenchman named Cazette. 
"Old Snagg," the chief, was afterward scalped by Buck Stinson. 

The law abiding citizens arose to the occasion and determined that 
the roughs who had perpetrated this outrage should be tried, and if found 
guilty suffer punishment. J. F. Hoyt was elected judge, and twelve good 
men selected as a jury, among whom were Mr. Langford. W. C. Rheem, 


in able lawyer, was assigned as counsel for the accused and the triai 

Mr. Langford was a man of courage and solid worth, and became a 
marked man, when he voted "guilty" while all his comrades decided to 
clear the prisoners. The enmity of the road agents against him is easily 
accounted for, and he narrowly escaped death at their hands. He was 
the first post master of Bannack, but resigned in 1864 tG become Collector 
of Internal Revenue of the new territory of Montana. lie was succeeded 
as post master by Lucius Nims, Jr. Truman C. Everts was Assessor of 
Internal Revenue. 

He occupied official positions in Montana until 1876, being appointed 
governor of the territory by Andy Johnson, but the strained relations then 
existing between the president and senate, prevented his confirmation to 
that office. 

In August, 1870, he with other prominent citizens of the territory or- 
ganized the Washburn Yellowstone expedition, and through the public 
press made known to the world the unparalleled phenomina of "Wonder- 

He was the first superintendent of the National Park, and continued 
in that position for more than five years without compensation, and pay- 
ing his own expenses. He is an honorary member of the Historical So- 
ciety of Montana, to which association he has contributed many valuable 
books and papers. He is president of the Historical Society of Minnesota, 
and makes his residence at St. Paul. 

SAMUEL T. HAUSER. Mr. Hauser was from St. Louis and was a 
passenger with me on the Emilie in 1862. He was a civil engineer, a 
strong man both physically and mentally, and became one of the leading 
men of the new territory. He organized the First National Bank ot 
Helena, and served as governor of Montana by appointment of Grovci 
Cleveland. He w r as brave and fearless, and was severely wounded by the 
Crow Indians in the fight on the Yellowstone in 1863, while a membec 
of the James Stuart party. 

In his interesting story of "The^Life and Adventures of Captain Joseph 
La Barge." (Francis P. Harper, N. Y., 1903) Hiram M. Chittenden, of the 
United States army, says, "The danger from snags was alw r ays present 
and sometimes very great, and passage of these obstructions was a matter 
«jf anxious solicitude on the part of both passengers and officers Less 
dangerous, but not less annoying, was the passage of shallow bars where 
there was not sufficient depth to float the boat. This usually occurred at 
the "crossings" or places where the channel, after having followed one 
v 'de of the river-bed for a distance, crossed over to the other. In these 
places the channel generally split up into chutes, none of which might 
have the required depth of water. The pilot's first step would be to select 



the most promising channel. If this failed, he retreated and tried another." 
If no channel could be found, some officer of the boat would go out 
in the yawl, and sound for the deepest water, an if only a few inches in 
depth was lacking, the steamer would try ''walking." Huge spars would 
be planted each side the bow, with the tops leaning up the river. By the 
use of tackle and the "'nigger" engine, the boat would be partially lifted 
over the bar. At times when a depth of two or three inches more water 
would float the boat, the wheels were turned backward, thus damming up 
the water, while the spars and "nigger" engine would pusn her forward. 

JOHN F. GRANT, popularly known as "Johnny" was son of Captain 
Richard Grant, who had been an officer of the Hudson Bay company, and 
was well known as a trader on the old emigrant road. C. P. Higgins, an 
able and worthy man, married one of Captain Grant's daughters. He and 
the Grant's settled in the Bitter Root Valley, near Fort Owen in 1857, 
and at the time of which I write, the Grants were rich in horses and 
cattle. "Johnny" was perhaps the earliest settler in the beautiful Deer 
Lodge Valley, and his herds swarmed therein when we first came to it. 
It was understood that he kept a squaw from each of the surrounding 
tribes of Indians, and when any approaching party of Indians were dis- 
covered, their tribal relations were early made out, and all the wives ot 
other blood were carefully concealed, that no quarrel might result, during 
the entertainment of the uncles, aunts and cousins, of the wife of the blood 
of the visitors. Mr. Grant was a kind and generous friend to those whom 
he trusted, but was harsh with those he disliked. 

One of the old pioneers was Louis R. Maillet who came into the coun- 
try with the Stevens surveying party about 1855. He tells the follow- 
ing story of an incident in the life of "Johnny" Grant. In the winter of 
1855, Grant "whose camp was on Beaverhead creek, was in his lodge mak- 
ing pack saddles, when the brother of one of his Indian wives entered 
and struck him on his head with a club, saying that his sister had been 
treated badly and that Grant loved his young Indian wife better than the 
"»ld one. Grant threw the Indian down and held him, whereupon some 
squaws ran in armed with knives, and would certainly have killed him, 
bad not Maillet interfered, knocking down two of them and threatening 
the others with his pistol if they did not leave. The trouble ended there, 
and Grant escaped. That night, another brother-in-law, his young wife's 
brother, arrived in camp. This was Tin-doy, who, Mr. Maillet says, was 
the bravest Indian he ever saw. Tin-doy rated the Indians roundy and 
told them that if they ever caused any more trouble he would take a club 
and knock their brains out. The Indians greatly feared him, and peace 
was restored in camp." 

Once when taking four hundred head of cattle for "Johnny" Grant to 


California, Mr. Maillet, riding ahead discovered signs of Indians. Wait- 
ing for his train to come up, he formed the wagons into a corral, near a 
•small creek, and awaited events. He told his men to load every gun, and 
await the attack behind the shelter of the wagons. As soon as the In- 
dians fired, to make a rush before they could have time to load. They 
were attacked and the scheme worked admirably; the Indians took to 
♦.heir heels and escaped to the rocks. He further says ; "Among our party 
was a young man who lived in California, and who had come east to 
get himself a wife. He had married a young lady in Philadelphia., a very 
pretty girl, who did not seem more than sixteen years old. When the at- 
tack began, the husband had made a place for her between sacks of flour 
and placed her therein. This same young man was one of the first 
to run after the Indians. After they were dislodged, we turned towards 
the wagons and there we met this dear little woman who had followed 
us. Her husband chided her for leaving her place of security. Her tear- 
ful reply was that she thought her husband would surely be killed, and 
if he was, that she wanted to die too. Every man in the outfit instantly 
fell in love with her and would have died for her. As for myself, I am 
sure I felt as the others did, for I love her still. 

We had one man — a Mr. Hall, killed, One Indian was seen to fall, 
rise and fall again. I do not know if he has risen since or not." 

BUFFALO. Persons who never saw a large herd of buffalo, can 
scarcely credit statements made concerning the unlimited number of these 
awkward, ungainly creatures which once roamed over the great plains. 
Captain Lewis of the Lewis & Clark expedition says of a herd which he 
saw on Sun river: "There were at least ten thousand of them within a 
circle of two miles." 

Again, of a herd seen on Teton river, near the present town of Ben- 
ton : "We continued through immense herds of buffalo for twenty miles." 
His associate, Capt. Clark, writing of buffalo seen on his trip down the 
Yellowstone: "The herd stretched as thick as they could swim from 
one side of the river to the other, and the party was obliged to stop for 
an hour." 

^ While making their celebrated portage around the Great Falls of the 
Missouri, Lewis and Clark say; "They go in great herds to water about 
the falls, and as the passages to the river near that place are narrow and 
steep, the foremost are pressed into the river by the impatience of those 
behind. In this way we have seen ten or a dozen disappear over the falls 
in a few minutes." 

The herds were not perceptibly diminished at the time 01 our expedi- 
tion. I have seen countless multitudes upon the rolling prairies bordering 
the Missouri River, between old Forts Pierre and Union. At times the 
wheels of the steamer were stopped for fear of injuring both the paddle 



wheels, and in consideration for the stupid, bull-headed beasts who blocked 
the way. 

More than once when on a boat going down the river have I seen upon 
the bank below us a large herd grazing close to shore, and as the boat 
approached they would take fright and run down the stream, trampling 
down willows and brush as they ran, and coming to some turn in the 
river keep straight on, plunging over the bank and each other, hundreds 
upon hundreds, while the boat, unable to stop its progress in season, 
would strike many under its wheels. 

When running free upon the prairie, its lumbering gait appears slow,* 
and extremely awkward, leaning far over to one side, then changing and 
leaning to the other, like a sail boat in a vigorous breeze. In fact, their 
progress is rapid, and it takes the very fastest Indian pony to overtake 
and pass one. 

In the old days when hunting them with bow and arrows, the pursuer 
would ride along side and the beast of his selection, and let drive an 
arrow, and if placed in the right spot he paid no more attention to that 
particular animal but selected another for his victim. When hunting with 
the old Hudson Bay flint lock, the Indian carried his bullets in his mouth, 
and his powder in a horn. When loading he placed the horn in the 
muzzle of the gun, and let the powder run until he thought he had a 
charge, then dropped in a bullet which ran down to the powder, while he 
held the gun nearly perpendicular while riding at utmost speed. Coming 
along side his victim, he lowered the mizzle of his gun, and fired. If the 
bullet had not escaped from the gun before it went off, he was in luck. 
In this way many of the Indians' guns are shortened, which has often 
been the subject of remark by tenderfeet, the muzzles having been blown 
off while hunting buffalo. 

Captain Chittenden in his ''Early Steamboat Navigation on the Mis- 
souri River," tells a funny story of a buffalo hunt in which Captain Joseph 
La Barge took part. On one of his trips to the mountain, the men had 
got pretty tired of the regulation fare on the boat, and longed for fresh 
meat. His first mate was an Englishman who had never seen a wild 
buffalo. Soon after they saw four bulls swimming the river. Captain La 
Barge said, "Man the yawl, John, and I will go with you and we will 
have a buffalo before we get back." The Captain ordered the men on 
the steamer to shoot the animals, and he would lasso a wounded one and 
drag it to the boat. He placed the mate in the bow of the yawl with a 
Hne> while he took the rudder. The men fired and wounded two buffalos. 
To reach them the yawl had to pass close to the uninjured ones. To the 
consternation of the Captain, the mate slipped his noose over the horns 
of a big bull which had not been wounded. Too late, the Captain shouted 
that he did not wish to anchor to a live buffalo. "Oh," exclaimed the 
mate, "he's as good as any." 


The crew backed the oars, but to no purpose ; away went the bull with 
the boat, and when he struck the shore, they started across the prairie, 
but soon the stem of the yawl gave way, being wrenched entirely out of 
the boat and carried oil* by the beast in his flight. 

&c. Upon my books I find charged out 

1. 00 

1. 00 
I. OO 


Tobacco reached $15 per pound for a short time in 1863. In January, 
1864, I find the following bill of goods credited to W. A. Clarke, since 
United States senator, and the celebrated multi-millionaire, then freighting 
and trading between the mines and Salt Lake City: 

2 boxes of butter 299 lbs. $299.00 

3 sacks of flour 261 lbs. 208.80 
5 sacks of peaches 201 lbs. 160.80 
1 box of eggs 120 doz. 120.00 

129 lbs. of oats 24.27 


for Thanksgiving dinner, 1863 

3 cans of peaches 

3 chickens 

1 can of oysters 

5J lbs. hominy 


A. J. Oliver & Co. 

1 gal. molasses 

5 lbs. candles 

5 boxes matches 

1 tin bucket 

23 lbs. butter 

60 lbs. meal 


Staples, viz., coal oil and whisky, were ten dollars per gallon. 

MILK RIVER. On the 8th of May, 1805, Lewis and Clark came to a 
stream having "a peculiar whiteness, such as might be produced by a 
tablespoonful of milk in a dish of tea," which they named "Milk River." 
The stream has retained its name, and as in the early days of steamboat 
navigation, boats rarely ascended above this point, its valley became 
the great highway to Fort Benton and beyond. When the railroads were 
built, the engineers followed the broad trail in their course to the Pacific 

FIRST NEWSPAPER IN MONTANA. In Vol. Ill, page 300 of the 
publications of the Historical Societv of Montana, N. H. Webster in 


writing of the Montana Post, which was the first regular newspaper 
printed in the Territory, says: 

"This was an excellent paper, the first established in Virginia City. 
and with the exception of the "News Letter" of Bannack, a small sheet, 
of short life, the Post was really the first paper in the Territory." 

The facts are, that I had a small hand press sent out in the spring of 
1864 and with it the head lines for a news letter. Using this heading, I 
published a few numbers giving local news about Bannack, with no in- 
tention of making the publication a permanent affair. As this was the 
first attempt at a newspaper in Montana, I claim whatever credit there 
may be in the matter. I am informed that copies are on file in the archives 
of the Historical Society. 

TRUMAN C. EVERTS came to Montana in 1864 bearing the appoint- 
ment of Assessor of Internal Revenue. He made his headquarters at my 
store in Bannack, and was a cultured gentleman and proved an efficient 
officer. In 1870 he joined the Washburn expedition to the Yellowstone 
Lake country. Wholly devoid of skill in woodcraft, he managed to stray 
from his companions while in the wilderness, and for thirty-seven days 
wandered alone without blankets or arms, a portion of the time scarcely 
sane, living upon thistle roots, and dogged for hours by a mountain lion. 
He at length was found by a party which had been sent out for his rescue. 
He died at Hyattsville, Md., February 16th. 1901, aged 85 years. See his 
relation, Scribner's Magazine, November, 187 1. 

THE FIRST SCHOOL IN MONTANA. Miss Lucia Darling, niece 
of Governor Edgerton, taught the first school established in what is now 
Montana. It was opened in a room of the log cabin of her uncle, in the 
fall of 1863. When looking for a place in which to open her school, Miss 
Darling and her uncle called upon one patriotic citizen and explained 

their business. He said, "Yes, glad of it; d d shame, children running 

around in the streets ; ought to be in school ; I'll do anything I can to help 
her, she can have this room ; I'll give it to her cheap. She can have it 
for fifty dollars a month ; it's dirt cheap !" 

Miss Darling gathered about about twenty pupils. She afterwards 
became Mrs. S. W. Park of Warren, Ohio. Mrs. Park died August 18th.. 




Charles Arthur Higgins, LL. M. 

The winning of victory out of almost years of defeat is what impressed 
me most strongly as the accomplishment of one Massachusetts woman, 
Mary Harrod Northend, the famous authority and writer upon Amer- 
ican historical and colonial homes, and their settings and furnishings. 

In the quaint old side street of Lynde in Salem, I found Miss Northend 
surrounded by her inherited and accumulated treasures. Here we talked 
of her early struggles, her successes and her hopes. 1 found a bright, 
happy little woman with sparkling eyes and ready voice, which belied the 
gathering crown of silver about the brow of this clever, determined piece 
of interesting femininity. 

The author relates that in girlhood and young womanhood, she was 
a semi-invalid, and consequently her school days were brief and intermit- 
tant. She had reached a mature age, when, after various efforts toward 
self-support, an incident in her social life led her to attempt literary 

It was after a house party, some dozen years ago that Miss Northend 
was searching for someone to record the occasion in verse; she could find 
no one, and was forced to do it herself. Miss Northend says that she 
turned out a couple of bits of "doggerel'' but they were accepted as 
"poems," and from that period she determined to enter the literary field 
in earnest. She relates that her intimates, knowing her educational defi- 
ciencies, frankly endeavored to discourage her. saying it would be wasted 
effort, and for a time their prophecies seemed true. Her manuscripts were 
politely returned by magazine editors, with her autograph and address 
cut from the page and pasted on the outside of the envelope, because they 
could not decipher the writing nor, probably, read any of the contents. A 
typewriter was the ultimate remedy for that. 



Then Miss Northend began a campaign in the magazine departments 
of the metropolitan dailies and received her first encouragement some 
dozen years ago from the Sunday editor of the Boston Herald. Her kodak 
furnished the first illustrations but were far from satisfactory and the 
embryo author was wise enough to devote her energies to the story side. 
.Later she hired a professional photographer to accompany her on copy- 
producing excursions. By polishing and repolishing her efforts, this 
woman of meagre educational opportunities, has brought herself in fifteen 
years to a position of known ability and recognized authority, and to a 
point where the demand for her work is beyond her physical powers. 

Last year over one hundred and fifty articles were published in various 
magazines that appear in every household. Her second book, ''Historic 
Homes of New England, " followed quickly after her earlier work, "Colo- 
nial Homes and Their Furnishings. " Each is a pretentious volume of 
beauty and rich with a wealth of illustrations. Through the urging of her 
publishers, Little, Brown & Co., Miss Xortbend brought out the earlier 
volume in seven weeks time, an act made possible only by the existence 
of the most wonderful collection of negatives in the country, bearing upon 
colonial and historic homes, which now numbers nearly sixteen thousand. 

Her work is most often seen in the Ladies Home Journal, to which she 
is a constant contributor. But some thirty-seven different periodicals 
have a call for her work. At the present time she has in preparation two 
articles for the Century, one on the "Value of Summer Camps," and another 
on "North Shore Gardens"; also an article for the Outlook, "Why Mothers 
Should Send Their Girls to Summer Camps." Her third book, which is 
now "on the ways" will be devoted to the subject of "Remodeled Farm 
Houses", to embrace not only New England houses, but examples in other 
states as well. 

While Miss Northend's writings are familiar to the average reader, yet 
her principal feature is photographic work for magazines, and much of 
her time, more especially during the summer months, is devoted to travel- 
ling- all over New England getting beautiful homes, grounds, and other 
pictures to be used during the winter months, taking from 2000 to 3000 
pictures each year. 

She claims that much of her success in this work resulted from the fact 
that she always gives personal supervision to everything, and while it en- 
tails an immense amount of work and takes a great deal of time, yet the 

i, . , u , , i , , . A , , , ■ ^ „ ,iB, f ,, i h^ i ,. ii i , ., i n i .,.i ..jBlg^ip^i 

pppp t gpa^ 


^^^.i^^-^^^-^^ — .,M%>^tf>,».itoj ...„~*. 

fttri'm i, tfffm MttTi Si.rfrrWrt^ii^Wiiri'''^'''"^ 


Mary Herrod Northend 



So this brief sketch proves that efforts that were at first considered the 
riding of a hobby, have passed into the full position of an honorable profes- 
sion. For Miss Northend's boundaries of research, description and illustra- 
tion are not limited to the exterior or interiors of four walls, but to every 
-detail connected with the fitting. Chapters are written on doorknockers or 
andirons; wall papers receive historic treatment that is educational, gate- 
ways, lintels, windows, stairways, fireplaces, porticoes, china, glassware. 
silver, pewter, furniture and draperies, as well as the gardens and walks, 
have received that dignified treatment that causes her articles and works to 
be read by the architect, the designer, the expert in every furnishing trade 
and profession, and sought after by the historian, the student, the artist and 
the booklover of every degree. 

Wisely this little lady early resolved to break the rigors of her constant 
labor by bringing to her side pleasant friends and enlightening converse, 
and so each Friday evening finds gathered in her rooms, a select coterie 
of literary and artistic workers, happy over Miss Northend's brewing of 
the tea. 



Colonel John Paterson's Minute Men's and militia Regiment, April 19, 1775. 

Colonel John Paterson's 12th Regiment, Provincial Army, May-June 1775. 

Colonel John Paterson's 26tii Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, 

July-December, 1775. 

By Frank A. Gardner, M D. 

Colonel John Paterson's Regiment, which responded to the Lexington 
Alarm of April 19, 1776, was made up of Minute Men and Militia from 
Berkshire County. The Regiment was composed of seven companies with 
officers as follows: 

Peter Porter 
Charles Dibble 
William Goodridge 
Thomas Williams 
David Rossiter 
Asa Barnes 
David Noble 

First Lieutenants 
Moses Ashley 
Simeon Smith 
David Pixley 
Josiah Arnold 
Ebenezer Smith 
Thomas Nichols 
Joseph Welch 

Second Lieutenants 
Silas Childs 
Amos Porter 

Oringh Stoddard 

"Ensign Caleb Smith 

Josiah Wright . . . - 
A list of the Field and Staff officers from April 22nd to May 7th con- 
tains the following: 

Colonel John Paterson 
Lietenant Colonel Seth Reed 
Major Jeremiah Cady 
Adjutant Enoch Woodbridge 
Chaplain David Avery 
Surgeon Timothy Childs 
Surgeon's Mate Jonathan Lee 
Quartermaster Gerard Fitch 




April 22 
April 20- 
April 22 
April 22- 


'• - 



.Under date of May 26, 1775, we find the following: 
•'Capt. I. W. Kilton 
Capt. Will. Wyman 
Capt. Joseph Morse 
Capt. Sam. Sloan 
Capt. Chas. Dibble 
Capt. Will Gutteridge 
Capt. David Noble 
Capt. Thomas Williams 
Capt. Watkins 
Capt. Gibbs 



r A return of Colonel Paterson's Regiment, 
Field Officers: 

John Paterson, Colonel. 

Seth Reed, Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Jeremiah Cady, Major. 


May 27, 1775. 




Samuel Kelton 

John Bacon 

Nahum Powers 


Wm. Wyman 

Sam'l Chapin 

Peter White 


Joseph Moss 

Wm. Bowdoin 



Sam'l Sloan 

Zebediah Sabin 

Enos Parker 


Chas. Dibbell 

Simeon Smith 


Wm. Goodridge 

David Pixley 


David Noble 

Joseph Welch 

Josiah Wright 


Thomas Williams 

Orange Stoddard 



Nathan Watkins 

Wm. Clark 

Sam'l Wilcocks 


-Capt. Bliss 




Commission officers not included." 
A similar list found in the Archives 2y, Page 201, gives the following 
additions or variations : 

"Timothy Childs, Surgeon. 
John Lee, Surgeon's Mate. 
Lt. Moses Ashley, in Captain Thomas William's Company. 


Lt. John Compston, in Captain Bliss's Company. 

Ensign Orange Stoddard, in Captain Tromas William's Company. 

Ensign Francis Cabot, in Captain Bliss's Company." 

"Capt. John McKinster of Nobletown took out inlisting orders from 
Capt. Charles Dibbell in Col. Patterson's Regiment, we suppose this Com- 
pany to be full & near if not quite compleat as to arms & may be ex- 
pected here this week. Capt. Douglas at Jerico took inlisting orders 
as above, we suppose his Company to be full* & arms sufficient, this 
company may be extected here by next Monday at fartherest. Capt. In- 
gersol's Company may be expected every hour, he took our inlisting Or- 
ders from Capt. Wm. Guttridge in Collo. Patter-on's Regiment & is now 
on his March, supposed to be full and compleat with arms. Capt. Pratt 
we hear is gone, or proposes to go to the Northward. Capt. Strong we are 
doubtful whether he will get his Company full. 

John Pateroon, 
Wm. Goodridge. 
Cambridge, June 13, 1775." 

On the morning of June 17.. 1775, when news of the landing of the Brit- 
ish troops in Charlestown reached Cambridge, General Artemas Ward re- 
served his own regiment, Paterson's, Gardner's, and part of Bridges's 
Regiments, to be prepared for an attack on Cambridge, when he ordered 
the remainder of the Massachusetts forces to Charlestown. Colonel Pat- 
erson's regiment marched to the battle in the afternoon, and one man in 
the regiment was wounded. 

June 26, 1775, "whereas Capt. Mackenster of Spencer and Capt. Porter 
of Becket have Inlisted each a Company of men on the Establishment of 
this Colony and Not joyned as yet to any Regiment. Resolved, That the 
Said Company be Joyned to Colo. John Pattison's Regiment, how sta- 
tioned at Cambridge immediately, Provided Sd Companys are full or near 
full and that Each man is equipt with a good and sufficient firelock and 
join their regiment as soon as may be passed." 

The towns represented in this regiment are shown in the following list: 
Jno. McKinstry. 

Sam'l Sloan, Williamstown, E. Hoosac, etc., Sharon, Nobletown. 
Wm. Goodridge, Stockbridge 32 Indians). ( 
Theo.Bliss, Boston, Pepperillboro. 
Sam'l Kilton, Needham, Newton, etc., etc. 



Wm. Wyman, Uxbridge, Boston, Mendon, etc., etc. 

Nathan Watkins, Partridgefield, Gageborough, Plainfield, No. 5, etc., etc. 

Jos. Morse, Xatick, Roxbury, Medway, Sherborn, etc. 

Chas. Dibble, Lenox, Stockbridge, Glass-works, etc., etc. 

David Noble, Pittsfield, Richmond, etc. 

Thos. Williams, Stockbridge, W. Stockbridge, Becket, Hartwood. 

A list dated July 15, 1775, gives the nafes of the following officers on 
recruiting duty: 

Lt. Zebadiah Sabin 

Lt. Moses Ashley. 

Lt. Wm. Boden. 

Lt. Wm. Clark. 

Capt. Chas. Dibbell. 

Lt. John Wyman. 

Capt. Wm. Goodrich. 

Tehoiakim Mtojhksin. 

Lieut. John Bacon. 

July 22, 1775, Colonel Paterson's Regiment was assigned to Brigadier 
General Heath's Brigade. Major General Israel Putnam's Division. This 
regiment, which was at that time at No. 3 "to take post at No. 1 and the 
redoubt between that and No. 2." 

"An abstract due to the Field & Staff Officers of ye 26th Rg't from ye 
1st day of May to ye 1st day of August, 1775, one day included together 
with ye Place 

John Paterson, Lenox, Colonel, eng. May 7. 

Seth Reed, Uxbridge, Lt. Col., eng. May 7. 

Jeremiah Cady, Gageborough, Major. 

David Avery, Gageborough, Chaplain. 

, Adjutant. 

Gerard Fitch, Stockbridge, Ot. Mr. 

Timo. Childs, Pittsfield, Surgeon. 

Jona. Lee, Pittsfield, Surgeon's Mate." 

List dated August 1, 1775. 

September 30, 1775, the regiment was stationed at "Number Three." 
A list of officers of the Regiment dated August 6, 1775, is identical 
with the above list of August 1st, with the exception that the Adjutant 


is given as William Walker of Lenox. A return made October 18, 1775, 
shows that the Regiment was still at "Number Three." 

"Province of Massachusetts Bay. 
To the Honorable Council & House of Representatives. 
In General Court at Watertown Assembled. 
Gentm. The Petition of Us the Subscribers humbly Showeth that we 
have been at past of the Trouble and Expence of raising Several Com- 
panies in the 26th Reg't of Foot in the Continental Army, Commanded 
Col. John Paterson & marching them to camp & have Serv'd as Officers 
in said Reg't had encouragment of being Commissioned as such, but 
through Neglect have not yet Rec'd such Commission. We therefore 
Humbly pray this Honorable Court if they in their great Wisdom Should 
think fit to grant us Commissions accordingly & your Petitioners as in 
Duty shall Ever Pray. 

• John McKinstry, Captain. 

Wm. Walker, Adjutant. 
Thorn. McKinstry, 1st Lt. 
John Pennoyer, 2d Lt. 
Jed. Sanger, 2d Lt. 
Amos Porter. 2d Lt. 
Wm. Watkins, 2nd Lt. 
Jacob Lyon, 2d Lt. 
Edw. Compston, 2d Lt. 
This may certify that the within named Officers have served in their 
respective offices during the Summer Past. 

John Paterson, 
Col. 26th Reg't. 
October 23, 1775. 

Commission recommended by Council October 31. 1775." 
This regiment took part in the engagement at Lechmere Point on the 
<<th of November, 1775, and the part which they played caused General 
Washington to write as follows: 

''The alacrity of the rifle men and officers upon the occasion did them 
honor, to which Colonel Paterson's Regiment, and some others, were 
properly entitled." 

He praised them in the general orders of the next day. 

Two companies belonging to this regiment, under the command of 



Captains William Goodrich and Thomas Williams, both of Stockbridge, 
went on Arnold's Quebec expedition. The large number of Indians in 
these companies was probably the especial reason for their selection. 
They were both in Major Roger Enos's Battalian as the expedition was 
first organized, and when at Fort Western, a reorganization was made, 
Captain Goodrich's Company was in Major Return Jonathan Meig's Third 
Division and Captain Williams's Company in Lieut. Colonel Roger Enos's 
Fourth Division. The division under the command of Major Enos after 
reaching Dead River returned with the report that on account of a serious 
lack of provisions they were not able to proceed. Captain Williams's 
returned in this section of the expedition but Captain Goodrich with his 
company reached Quebec, where he was taken prisoner as narrated in the 
biographical sketch in the second section of this article. Lieutenant John 
Cumpston, of Saco, Maine District, was also a member of Arnold's Que- 
bec expedition, from Colonel Paterson's Regiment. 

Nine of the officers of this regiment had seen service in the French war 
or the Militia, before the Revolution. The following ranks were at- 
tained by officers of this regiment during their service in the war: one 
major general, one colonel, two lieutenant- colonels, four majors, nineteen 
captains, eleven first lieutenants, six second lieutenants, two ensigns, one 
adjutant (rank not given), one surgeon and one surgeon's mate. 

The strength of this regiment during the year is shown in the follow- 
ing table: 

Com. Off. Staff. Non Com. Rank and file. Total 

32 . 64 440 536 

19 4 53 409 485 . 

34 5 57 5o6 602 

33 5 57 445 540 
25 .5 48 407 485 

27 4 54 432 5*7 

28 3 49 459 539 

x June 9 
Aug. 18 
Sept. 23 
Oct. 17 
Nov. 18 
Dec. 30 

Ruth (Bird) Paterson. 


PATERSON was the son of Colonel John and 

He was born in Farmington, Connecticut, in 

He fitted for college in his native town, and graduated at Yale in 

A few weeks after his graduation his father died in Havana, Cuba, 

whether he had gone in command of a company of picked men from 
Farmington and Whethersfield, a part of the army under command of 
Lord Albemarle. The son John studied law, teaching school in the mean- 


time. He soon became distinguished in his profession, and in 1774 re- 
moved to Lenox, Berkshire County, Massachusetts. Soon after his ar- 
rival he was chosen Clerk of the Propriety. He represented the town in 
the General Court in May, 1774, and was made a selectman and assessor. 
"Mr. John Paterson" represented the Town of Lenox in the first Provin- 
cial Congress in October, 1774. October 25, 1774, he was chairman of a 
Committee of Progress "to inquire into the state of all the stores in the 
commissiary general's office." "John Paterson, Esq." was the representa- 
tive from Lenox to the Second Provincial Congress, held in February, 
1775. February 9th he was chairman of a committee "to report a resolve 
for the publication of the names of all those who have been appointed 
counsellors by mandamus, and have refused to resign their appointments." 
On the 10th he was a member of a committee "to revise the commission 
of the committee of safety, and the commission of the committee of sup- 
plies, and point out what amendments, if any, are necessary." Three 
days later Colonel Paterson was appointed on a committee "to bring in 
a resolve for inquiring into the state of the militia, their numbers and 
equipments, and recommending to the selectmen of the several towns and 
districts in this Province to make return of their own town and district, 
stock of ammunition and warlike stores, to this Congress." In the records 
of the same day we read : "Ordered, That Col. Paterson bring in a re- 
solve appointing an agent, for. and in behalf of this Province, to repair 
to the Province of Quebec and there establish a correspondence to collect 
and transmit to us the best and earliest intelligence that can be obtained 
of the sentiments and determination of the inhabitants of that Province 
with regards to the late actions of Parliment or any other imporant mat- 
ters that do or may effect the colonies in their present dispute with Great 

On the following day, he, with Mr. Bigelow and Colonel Henshaw 
were directed "to bring in a resolve, directing and empowering the Com- 
mittee of correspondence in the Town of Boston to establish an intimate 
correspondence with the inhabitants of the Province of Quebec," etc. 

A committee of Congress, April 1, 1775 was directed "to pay the sum 
of. twenty-three pounds, lawful money, into the hands of Colonel John 
Paterson and Capt. William Goodridge, to be employed in purchasing a 
number of blankets and some ribbons which they are to present to the 
Indians enlisted as aforesaid, viz : one blanket and one yard of ribbon to 
each person, that is or may be enlisted; and in case the whole of the 


money should not be employed in the purchase of the aforesaid, they are 
to be accountable for the residue." A letter from the Congress of appre- 
ciation to the Indians for their offers of service and sympathy was ad- 
dressed "To Jehoiakin Mtohksin, and the rest of our brethren, the Indians, 
natives of Stockbridge ;" and Colonel Paterson with two others was or- 
dered to draft a letter to the Reverend Mr. Kirkland, and an address to 
the Chief of the Mohawk Indian Tribe. This letter was presented to the 
Congress three days later, and on the same date it was "ordered" that 
Captain Goodridge apply to Colonel Paterson "in regard to a motion 
which Captain Goodridge had presented for 'liberty' to augment his 
company to one hundred men, and that they be considered as rangers." 
Colonel Paterson was to "consult the field officers of those regiments 
of militia, from which said company is to be enlisted." 

•Upon receipt of the news of the Lexington alarm Colonel Paterson 
assembled members of his regiment, and on April 22, 1775, marched with 
them to Cambridge. April 24, 1775, he was appointed one of a committee 
"to attend the committee of safety, and let them know the names of offi- 
cers .... belonging to the Minute Men and such as are most suitable 
for office in the Army now raising." May 5, 1775, he was engaged as 
Colonel of the 12th Regiment, Provincial Army. On the 8th of May 
Colonel Paterson, with two others was appointed on a Committee "to give 
notice to such members of this Congress as are now at Cambridge and 
Roxbury, and other absent members whom we can notify that a matter 
of greatest importance is to be taken into consideration at three o'clock 
tomorrow afternoon and to direct their attendance at that time." A com- 
mission was granted to him by this Congress before its close, May' 29, 
1775, as Colonel of the Regiment. 

"Resolved, that Colonel Asa Whitcomb be directed to pay the advance 
pay of those Companies in Colonel Paterson's Regiment, who came from 
the County of Berkshire, out of the first money he may receive from the 
Receiver General." (June 4, I775-) 

The record of Colonel Paterson and his men at Bunker Hill has already 
been given in the historical section of this article. The army was reor- 
ganized in July and Colonel Paterson's Regiment became the 26th in the 
Army of the United Colonies. During the remainder of the year this 
regiment did excellent service in the seige of Boston. When the Con- 
tinental Army was formed in January, 1776, Colonel Paterson was given 
command of the 15th Regiment. After the evacuation of Boston by the 


V 698876 


British, Colonel Paterson was ordered with his regiment to New York, 
and they marched on the 18th of .March. He was stationed with his men 
for a short time on Staten Island, where they remained for a short time, 
as a part of the defensive force of New York, for on April 21st they sailed 
from New York up the Hudson as one of the regiments ordered to relieve 
the Americans in Canada. Early in May they were in Montreal where 
they suffered severely from small pox, and a general vaccination was or- 
dered. He was engaged with his regiment, in the battle of The Cedars, 
where they met with a heavy loss in killed and wounded, and sixty-seven 
were taken prisoners. In June they retreated by way of Crown Point 
and Ticonderoga. During the summer he remained with his regiment at 
Fort Independence opposite Ticonderoga, and on September 22nd was 
ordered to Fort George. On November 18th they were ordered to em- 
bark at Lake George on their way south. He had only 331 men fit 
for duty on November 19, 1776. They left Albany, December 3rd, and 
reached Peakskill December 8th. When he reached Washington's Army 
which was retreating through New Jersey, he reported with only 220 out 
of the 600 men who had left for the northern campaign in April. He took 
part in the battles of Trenton and Princeton, and when the army was 
reorganized in January, 1777, he was given command of the First in that 
service, but on the 16th of February, 1777, Congress promoted him to the 
rank of Brigadier General, and he received his commission on the 31st, 
and was assigned to the Northern Department. Colonel Joseph Vose was 
appointed to command his regiment. General Paterson left at once for 
Ticonderoga. In the first battle of Stillwater, September 19, 1777, his 
brigade with that of Generals Glover V and Nixon's formed the right 
wing in the American Army. In the second battle of Bemis's Heights, 
October 7th, he with his troops, assaulted the entrenchments of Balcarras, 
being driven back from under the heavy fire of the grape and musket 
balls. Rallying the troops of his own and Glover's and Learned's Regi- 
ments, he attacked the great redoubt, and drove the British Light In- 
fantry, finally carrying the works. He was wounded, but he secured the 
victory. He remained on duty, however, during the strenudus days 
which preceded the surrender of Burgoyne. During the winter of I777~8 
he was at Valley Forge with his brigade. General Patterson with his 
brigade performed distinguished services in the battle of Monmouth by 
repelling the attacks of General Clinton. At White Plains, General Pater- 
son's Brigade, composed of the 10th, nth, 12th and 14th Regiments^ 



Massachusetts Line, was known as the 3rd Massachusetts Brigade. Dur- 
ing the winter of 1778-9 General Paterson's Brigade was stationed at 
West Point, the command of that post having been given to him. From 
then, on to the close of the war, he was constantly in the Highlands, 
and frequently commanded at West Point, notably during the winters 
of 1777-8, 1778-9, 1779-80. During the winter of 1780-81 he was under 
General Heath, and 1781-2 he was under General McDougall. On Sep- 
tember 30, 1783 George Paterson was commissioned a Major General. 
Thomas Egleston in his "Life of Major General John Paterson'' says : 
"He left the Army in December, 1783, having remained in service con- 
tinually since he was appointed Colonel. He was one of the last Generals 
to leave the Army. On his retirement he was granted half pay for life. 
.... With the exception of Lafayette, he was the youngest officer 
of his rank in the Revolutionary War, and he had the complete confidence 
of his superiors, not only as a patriot and a soldier, but as a man of 
sound judgment. His early experience as a lawyer and as a leader ol 
men had ripened his judgment and given to his mind his judicial charac- 
ter." He was one of the original members of the Society of the Cincinnati 
formed in January, 1783. When the Massachusetts Society was formed 
in June of that year, General Paterson presided. After the war he re- 
turned to Lenox, and built the house which, in 1894, was occupied by 
his great-grandson, Thomas Egleston of New York. During Shay's Re- 
bellion in 1786-7 he headed a detachment of Berkshire Militia ordered 
out for its suppression. After peace was restored, he resumed the prac- 
tice of his profession. In 1790, General Paterson became one of the 
proprietors of the "Boston Purchase" consisting of 230,400 acres of Broome 
and Tioga County, New York, and in the following year, he removed to 
Lisle, now known as Whitney's Point. He held many offices in this new 
section, and was the first judge and first representative to the State Leg- 
islature from the new county. From October 7, 1803, to March 3, 1805, 
he was Representative in the United States Congress from Tioga County. 
Broome County was set off from Tioga in 1806, and May 13th of that 
year he was made Chief Justice of the new county, serving during the 
remainder of. his life. Professor Egleston wrote of him as follows: 

"General Paterson was six feet, one and one-half inches in height, 
and well proportioned, of graceful carriage and commanding mein. He 
was a nervous, quick, active man, and a great pedestrian. While County 
Judge he would often walk eighteen miles to Binghampton to hold his 



court rather than to go to the field and catch a horse to ride. While 
in the army he served as a drill officer. He was diffident, retiring of 
habit, never putting himself forward or importuning for place. Duty 
was first with him, whether he received censure or praise for doing it. 
He always had the force of law with him. In all his relations he main- 
tained the strictest interpretation of the propriety and order, and he never 
forgot that he was a gentleman. " He died at Lisle, New York, July 
19, 1808, aged 64 years. A monument tablet to his memory was erected 
in Trinity Church in Lenox by his great-grandson, Thomas Egleston, in 

ably the son of Lieutenant John Reed of the same town, who was born 
March 6, 1748. April 19, 1775, he was engaged as Major in Colonel Eb- 
enezer Learned's Regiment, serving five days. May 7, 1775, he was en- 
gaged as Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel John Paterson's 12th Regiment, 
Continental Army. May 30th and 31st, 1775, he was reported "Field Offi- 
cer of the main Guards." When the Army was reorganized in July, 
1775, he was appointed Lieutenant Colonel under the same command in 
the 26th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies and served through the 

MAJOR JEREMIAH CADY of Gageborough, was Captain of a Gage- 
borough Company in Colonel Williams's "North Berkshire" Regiment, in 
July, 177 1. He was appointed Major of Colonel John Paterson's Regi- 
ment, April 22, 1775. A few days later he became Major of Colonel John 
Paterson's 12th Regiment, Provincial Army. AYhen the Army of the 
United Colonies was formed in July he held the same rank in the 26th 
Regiment, under the same commander, and served through the year. In 
a letter from General Schuyler dated Jan. 28, 1776, mention was made of 
Major Cady as commanding a "Corp." 

ADJUTANT ENOCH WOODBRIDGE of Stockbridge was appointed 
to the office April 22, 1775. He served through May 7, 1775. From Janu- 
ary 1, 1777 to November 20, 1778, he was quartermaster of Colonel Seth 
Warner's Additional Continental Regiment. 

ADJUTANT WILLIAM WALKER of Lenox, held that rank in this 
Regiment as shown by a list of Field and Staff Officers of Colonel John 


Paterson's 26th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, dated October 
69 l 77S- J ust when he entered the service we do not know, but we are 
certain that he had held the office during the summer, from a communi- 
cation addressed to Geenral Washington, signed by James Otis in behalf 
of council to General Washington (dated January I, 1775.) In this recom- 
mendation that a commission be granted, the statement was made that 
the officers whose names were mentioned had served during the "sum- 
mer past." January 1, 1776, he became First Lieutenant in Colonel John 
Paterson's 15th Regiment in the Continental Army. 

Stockbridge, was appointed to that office, April 22, 1775, and served 
through the year under Colonel Paterson in his three regiments; the Lex- 
ington Alarm Regiment, 12th Regiment in the Provincial Army, and from 
July to December in the 26th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies. 
During 1776 he was Quartermaster of Colonel John Paterson's 15th Regi- 
ment in the Continental Army. 

CHAFLAIN DAVID AVERY of Gageborough (Winsor) was en- 
gaged to serve in Colonel Paterson's Regiment, April 22, 1775, and he 
served through the year on Colonel Paterson's staff. February 15, 1777,. 
he became Chaplain of Colonel Henry Sherburne's Additional Regiment. 
August 15, 1778, he was appointed Chaplain of the 4th Massachusetts 
Brigade. He resigned March 4, 1780. 

SURGEON TIMOTHY CHILDS of Pittsneld was the son of Captain 
Timothy and Mary (Wells) Childs. He was born in Deerfield, April 9, 
1748. On the Lexington Alarm of April 19, 1775 ne marched as Lieuten- 
ant in Captain David Noble's Company in Colonel John Paterson's Regi- 
ment. May 7, 1775, he was engaged as Surgeon in Colonel John Pater- 
son's 12th Regiment, Provincial Army, and he held the same rank through 
the year on the staff of this commander. During 1776 he was Surgeon 
in Colonel John Paterson's 15th Regiment in the Continental Army. The 
following tribute is paid to him in the Child's Genealogy: "He was an 
ardent advocate of the people's rights, and of our Republican form of 
government. During the struggle for Independence, he participated ac- 
tively and zealously, by every means in his power, to promote the views 
and obects of the most eminentlv successful and useful. As a physician, 


Doctor Childs was eminently successful. As a public man he was able 
. ... As a testimony of the people's confidence, they for many years 
elected him to represent them in the Legislature of Massachusetts, both 
in the House and in the Senate." According to Heitman's "Historical 
Register of the Officers of the Continental Army" he died February 25, 
1821. But the Childs Genealogy gives his age at death as 76 years. 

SURGEON'S MATE JONATHAN LEE of Pittsfield served in this 
regiment from April 22, ly 75 at least through July of that year, and in 
all probability through the year. During 1776 he held the same rank in 
Colonel Paterson's 15th Regiment in the Continental Army. 

CAPTAIN ASA BARNES of Lanesborough marched in command of 
a company in this regiment on April 22, 1775. During 1776 he was Cap- 
tain in Colonel Paul Dudley Sargent's 16th Regiment, Continental Army. 
April 29, 1775 he enlisted in Colonel Ruggles Woodbridge's Regiment, and 
commanded a company in that organization through the year. A bio- 
graphical sketch of this officer has been given in'the Massachusetts Maga- 
zine, Volume 4, Page 40. 

CAPTAIN THOMAS THEODORE BLISS of Boston enlisted as an 
officer in this regiment April 20, 1775, and served under Colonel Paterson 
through the year. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel John Pater- 
son's 15th Regiment, Continental Army. Pie was taken prisoner at The 
Cedars, May 18, 1776, released on the following day, and retaken on the 
day after that. January 1, 1777, he became Captain in Colonel John 
Lamb's Second Regiment, Continental Artillery. He was taken prisoner 
at the Battle of Monmouth on the 28th of June, 1778, and was exchanged 
in December of that year. He rejoined his company and served to June, 

CAPTAIN CHARLES DIBBLE of Lenox, held that rank in a com- 
pany of Minute Men of this Regiment, and marched in response to the 
Lexington alarm or April 19, 1775. Soon after his arrival at Cambridge, 
he returned to Berkshire County, and enlisted five full companies, three 
of which joined the army at Cambridge, and two the army that went to 
the Northward. He went to Albany and purchased firearms and blankets 
for the army at Cambridge. April 23, 1778, he was commissioned Captain 
in Colonel David Rosseter's Third Berkshire County Regiment. October 


14, 1780, he reentered service in the last named regiment, and served until 
October 21, 1780, on an alram to the Northward. 

CAPTAIN (WILLIAM) DOUGLAS of Hancock, took enlisting or- 
ders at Jericho, according to a letter of Colonel John Paterson's dated 
Cambridge, June 13, 1775, but this regiment being full. Col. Paterson en- 
gaged that they should join Colonel Henshaw's Regiment. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM GOODRICH of Stockbridge commanded a 
company of Minute Men, containing thirty-two Indians, which marched 
in response to the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, from Stockbridge 
and Glass Works. May 5, 1775, he was engaged to serve in Colonel John 
Paterson's Twelfth Regiment, Provincial Army. He was one of the 
officers of this regiment who went to Quebec and was taken prisoner 
there. From March 1, 1777, he served as Major in Colonel John Pater- 
son's Brigade, and received his commission June 26, 1777. From October 
23, to November 7, 1780, he served as Major in command of Captain Enoch 
Noble's Company on the Bennington alarm. 

CAPTAIN GIBBS. In a list dated May 26, 1775, signed by Colonel 
John Paterson, the name of Captain Gibbs appears with thirty-five men 
credited to his company. No other record of a Captain Gibbs in connec- 
tion with this regiment has been found. 

CAPTAIN INGERSOLL. In the above mentioned list there also 
appears the name of Captain Ingersoll but owing to the fact that this 
regiment was full he was to join Colonel Henshaw's Regiment. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL KILTON of Needham marched as Sargeant in 
Captain Aaron Smith's Company of Militia, Colonel William Heath's 
Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. Five days later he 
was engaged as Captain in Colonel John Paterson's Regiment, and served 
through the year. 

CAPTAIN JOHN McKINSTRY of Nobletown was a private in Lieu- 
tenant David Black's Company of South Hampshire County Regiment 
which marched for the relief of Fort William Henry in 1757. In Decem- 
ber, 1760, he was an invalid on the Albany road returning from the West- 
William Shepherd's Company. From March 30 to November 1, 1762, he 
ward. From June 15 to December 1, 1751, he was a private in Captain 
served as a private under the last named commander, residence Blandford. 
In these last two records of service he is described as the son of John 


McKinstry. May 5, 1775 he was engaged as Captain in Colonel John 
Paterson's Regiment, and served through the year. During 1776 he was 
Captain in Colonel John Paterson's 15th Regiment, Continental Army. 

CAPTAIN JOSEPH MORSE (MOSS) of Natick, was the son ot 
Captain David and Sarah (Dyer) Morse. He was born in Natick, Janu- 
ary 1, 1739-40. March 7th, 1760 he enlisted as a private in Captain Jones's 
Company. From March 28th to December 4th, 1760, he was a Sergeant 
in Captain William Jones's Company. On the Lexington alarm of April 
19, 1775, he marched as Captain of a company of Colonel Samuel Bul- 
lard's Regiment, and five days later he was engaged as Captain in Colonel 
John Paterson's Regiment, serving through the year. During 1776, he 
was Captain in Colonel William Prescott's 7th Regiment, Continental 
Army. During 1777 he was Captain in Colonel Rufus Putnam's Fifth 
Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and from November II, 1778 to December 
15, 1779, the date of his death, he was Major in Colonel William Brad- 
ford's 14th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. His widow was allowed half 
pay to December 1786. See Massachusetts Magazine, Volume 1, Page 

bridge, was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain William Goodrich's 
Company of Indians, Colonel John Paterson's Regiment, April 23, 1775. 
He was called Captain in a list of recruiting officers of this regiment, 
dated July 15, 1775, said list being reproduced in IV Force II, page 1372 
He was probably the man of the same name who served as a private in 
Captain David Pixley's Stockbridge Company, Colonel John Brown's 
Third Berkshire County Regiment in June and July, 1775. 

CAPTAIN DAVID NOBLE of Pittsfield was a private in Captain 
Ezra Clapp's Company of the South Hampshire Regiment on the alarm 
at Fort William Henry in August, 1757. From August 6th to the 30th, 
1759, he was in Captain John Bancroft's Company, Brigadier General 
Ruggles's Regiment. In July, 1771, he was Lieutenant in Captain Israel 
Stoddard's (Pittsfield West) Company, Colonel William Williams's Regi- 
ment. He built the school house in the Western district of Pittsfield, in 
1765. He served on a partiotic Committee in Pittsfield before the Revo- 
lution. In April, 1775, as a resident of Westford he organized a Com- 
pany of Minute Men in Pittsfield and led them on the news of the Lex- 
ington alarm. April 29, 1775, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel John 
Paterson's Twelfth Regiment, Provincial Army. December 3L I775, he 




led a company belonging to Colonel John Paterson's Fifteenth Regiment, 
Continental Army from Pittsfield toward Boston, thence via New York 
to Canada. At Crown Point in June, 1776, he was taken with small-pox 
and died in the following month, having written home a long letter to 
his wife under date of July 1, 1776. 

CAPTAIN PETER PORTER of Becket was probably the man of that 
name who was a resident of Berkley. He was a private in Captain Na- 
thaniel Blake's Company from April 10th to November 8th, 1755. Travel 
was allowed him from Albany home. He was Captain of a Company of 
Minute Men in Colonel John Paterson's Regiment, which marched on the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775; service one month, one and one-half 
days, after which he returned home. May 3, 1776 he was commissioned 
Captain in Colonel Benjamin Symonds's Second Berkshire County Regi- 
ment. In December, 1776, he was a Captain in Colonel Samuel Brewer's 
Regiment. From April 26, to May 20, 1777, he again commanded a Com- 
pany in Colonel Benjamin Symonds's Second Berkshire County Regi- 
ment. From July 10th to 25th, 1777, he was a Captain in Colonel John 
Brown's Third Berkshire County Regiment. From September 22nd to 
October II, 177, he commanded a company in the same regiment on the 
Bennington alarm, and this company escorted 169 prisoners to Spring- 
field. July 1, 1778, he was engaged as Captain in command of a detach- 
ment from General Fellows's Berkshire County Brigade, serving under 
Brigadier General Stark at Albany until his discharge, April 31, 1778. 

CAPTAIN PRATT. This name appears on a list of officers in Colonel 
Paterson's Regiment, June 13, 1775. 

CAPTAIN DAVID ROSSITER of Richmond was born about I73 6 - 
He was a Lieutenant in Captain Elijah Brown's (Richmond) Regiment, 
in Colonel William Williams's Regiment in July, 1771. He commanded 
a Company of Minute Men in Colonel John Paterson's Regiment which 
marched on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, and served to May 22, 
1775. January 30, 1776 he was chosen by ballot in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, First Major in Colonel Benjamin Symonds's Second Berkshire 
County Regiment, receiving his commission February 7, 1776. April 4» 
1777, he was chosen by ballot, Lieutenant Colonel of Colonel John Brown's 
Third Berkshire Regiment. February 5, 1778, upon the resignation of 
Colonel Brown he was chosen Colonel in his stead. From October 12th 
to 24th, 1781, he served as Colonel in command of a detachment of militia 
raised to reinforce the Army under General Stark at Saratoga. He died 
in Richmond, March 8, 1818, aged 75 years, (a. j6 f Gr. S.) 

(To be Continued) 

This is the fifteenth and last instalment of the series on Massachusetts Pioneers to Michigan. 


By Charles A. Flagg 

Besides the abbreviations of book titles, (explained on pages 76, 77. 78 and 79 of April, and page 186 of 
July. 1908 issues) the following are used: b. for born; d. for died; m. for married; set. for settled in. 

White, Wilson, b. 1770; set. N. Y. Jack- 
son Port., 351. 

Whiting, Berm'ce, m. William Park of 
N. Y. Saginaw Port., 636. 

John, set. N. Y., 1815? St. Clair, 


William, set. N. Y., 1800? Saginaw 

Port, 636. 

Whitman, Mahitable, b. 1817? m. Nor- 
ton Gilbert of O. and Mich. Kent, 

J. W., b. 1816; set. Mich., 1854. Sag- 
inaw Port., 646. 

Joel, b. Conway; set. N. Y., 1785? 

Lenawee Port., 824. 

John, 1812 soldier ; set. Vt., 1820? 

Saginaw Hist., 750. 

John, of Hancock; set. N. Y.„ 

Mecosta, 374. 

John W., set. Mich., 1850? Osceola, 


Whitmarsh, Alvah, b. Cummington, Whitney, Jonathan, set. N. Y., 1792; d. 

1796; set. N. Y., 1834, 111. Lenawee 
Port., 1 135. 

- Horace, of Cummington, set. Mich., 

1832? Lenawee Hist. I, 352. 
Nahum, of Cummington, set. Mich., 

1832? Lenawee Hist. I, 352. 
Samuel P., b. Springfield, 1831; set. 

N. Y., 1834, HI-, Cal., Mich., 1867. 

Lenawee Port., 1135. 
Whitmore, Ada, m. 1845? George Hull 

of Ind. Osceola, 275. 
Daniel, set. N. Y., O., 1825? Mass v 

N. J. Lenawee Hist. II, 251. 
Whitney, Ami, b. 1781; set. N.' Y., 1792. 

Hillsdale Port., 192. 
David, Jr., b. Westford, 1830; set. 

Mich., 1856 or 1861. Wayne Chron., 

444; Wayne Land., appendix, 203. 
■ Deborah, b. Goshen, 1794; m. Eph- 

raim Watkins of N. Y. Hillsdale 

Port., 446, 589. 
Edson L., b. Gardner, 1861; set. 

Mich., 1894. Northern M., 442. 
■ Isaac, set. N. Y., 1800? d. 1817. 

Macomb Hist., 776. 
' J.. H„ set. Mich., 1870? Washte- 
naw Hist., 1237. 

1794. Hillsdale Port., 192. 
Mary, m. 1820? Samuel Brinton of 

Conn, and Mich. Branch Twent., 447. 
Nathan B., set. 111., 1850? St. Jo- 
seph, 85. 
-Richard H., b. 1808; set. Mich.,. 

1831. Lenawee Hist. II, 393. 
Willard S., b. Hancock, 1821; set. 

N. Y., 1835, Mich., 1868. Mecosta^ 

William H., set. Mich., 1831. Lena- 
wee Illus., 468. 
Whiton, Sophia, b. Montague, 1799; ra 

1824, Reuben Nims of Vt. and Mich. 

Macomb Hist., 833; Macomb Past, 219. 
Whittaker, Nancy, b. Williamstown^ 

1788; m. William W. Johnson of N. Y. 

Isabella, 401. 
S. A., of Lawrence; set. Mich., 1835. 

Hillsdale Hist., 220. 
Whittemore. Betsey, m. 1825? William 

Farrar of N. Y. and Mich. Genesee 

Port., 898. 
John, b. Salem, 1771; set. Vt., 1790? 

Lake Huron, 135. 
John, b. Maiden, 1824; set. N. Y.,. 

1826, Mich., 1866. Kent. 1167. 




Whitwood, Deodatus C, b. VV. Stock- 
bridge, 181^; set. Mich., 1836. Detroit, 

Wight, Buckminster, b. Sturbridge, 

1791; set. Mich., 1832. Wayne Chron., 

Henry A., b. Sturbridge, 1821; set 

Mich., 1832. Wayne Chron., 170. 
Stanley G., b. Sturbridge, 1825; set. 

Mich., 1832. Wayne Chron., 170. 
Wilber, Laura A., b. Wrentham, 1815; 

m. Jehial M. Rush of N. Y. Hillsdale 

Port., 189. 
Wilbur, John, b. Adams, 1797; set 

Mich., 1835. Jackson Hist, 154. 
Smith, b. N. Adams, 1785 or 1789; 

set N. Y., O., 1834. Branch Port, 

318; Hillsdale Port, 824. 
Wilcox, Charles, set. N. Y., d. 1816. 

Branch Port., 449. 
Harry, b. 1799; set. N. Y., Mich. 

Jackson Hist., 162. 
Wilcox, Jennie E., b. Stockbridge; m. 

1849 George E. Rice. Jackson Port, 

John, of Plymouth, set. N. Y., 1805. 

Berrien Port, 419. 
Oliver, set. N. Y., O.; d. 1827. Ber- 
rien Port, 419. 
Orrin, set N. Y., Mich., 1852. Gen- 
esee Port., 457. 
Wilde, George E., b. Duxbury, 1850; set. 

Mich., 1884? Northern P., 206. 
Wilder, Clark W., set. N. Y., 1810? 

Kalamazoo Port., 324. 
Oshea, b. Gardner, 1782 or 1784; 

set N. Y., Mich., 1831. Calhoun, 134; 

iHomer, 25, 45. 
Wilkins Esther, m. 1840? George C. 

Hayward of N. Y. Newaygo, 228. 

Wilkinson, James E., b. Essex Co., 
1857; set. N. Y., Mich., 1888. Muske- 
gon Port., 419. 

Willard, Lucy, b. Dalton or Worcester, 
1780; m. 1807? Erastus Day of Cana- 
da, N. Y., and Mich., Macomb Hist, 
695, 791. 

Luther B., b. Cambridge, 1818; set. 

N. Y., 1832, Mich., 1835. Wayne 
Chron., 233. 

Sallie, m. 1815? Joshua C. Upham 

of Vt and O. Kalamazoo Port, 221. 

Samuel, b. Lancaster, 1793; set. N. 

Y., 1704, Mich., 1837. Cass Hist, 

Williams, Alfred L., b. Concord, 1808; 
set. Mich., 1815. St. Clair, 122; Shia- 
wassee. 159. 

Alpheus, of Concord, set Mich., 

1815. Saginaw Hist., 194, 

Alpheuls, of Concord, set. Mich., 

1815. Saginaw Hist, 194. 

Alpheus F., b. Concord, 1812; set 

Mich., Cal. Shiawassee, 159. 

Benjamin O., b. Concord, 1810; set 

Mich., 1815. St. Clair, 120; Shiawas- 
see, 159. 

Caroline, L., b. Concord, 1806; m. 

Rufus W. Stevens of Mich. Shia- 
wassee, 159. 

Celia, b. Northbridge, 1856; m. ■ 

Taylor. Isabella, 341. 

Elisha, set. N. Y., 1820? Mich., 

1836. Branch Twent, 469. 

Elizabeth, m. 1820? William Dewey 

of Vt. and Mich. Jackson Port., 495- 

Ephraim, S. (or J.), b. Concord, 1802; 

set. Mich., 1815. St. Clair, 124; Shia- 
wassee, 159. 

Erastus, b. Stockbridge; set. N .Y.; 

d. 1873. Kalamazoo Port., 217. 

Gardner D., b. Concord, 1804; set. 

Mich., 1815. Saginaw Hist., 209; Shia- 
wassee, 159. 

Harriet L., b. Concord, 1814; m. 

George W. Rogers of Mich, and Cal. 
Shiawassee, 159. 

Harvey, ib> Concord, 17741 set 

Mich., 1809. Saginaw Hist., 194. 

— —Henry, b. Leverett, 1786; set. Vt, 
1810? N. Y., 1827. Ionia Port, 215. 

Jacob A., set. N. Y. Berrien Port, 


John, set. N. Y., 1838. Clinton Port, 

504- ' 

John D., b. Boston, 1819; set N. Y., 

1838; Mich., 1848. Clinton Port, 504- 

Joseph R., b. Taunton, 1800; gradu- 
ate of Harvard 183 1; set. Mich., 1839. 
St. Joseph, 125. 



Williams, Lucy, m. J. Hoadley of N. Y. 
Berrien Port, 520. 

Mary, m. 1826 Fellows Gates of 

Canada and Mich. Ionia Port., 434. 
Mary Ann, b. Concord, 1807; m. 

Schuyler Hodges of Mich. Shiawas- 
see, 159 
Oliver, b. Roxbury, 1774; set. Mich., 

1808 or 1815. Oakland Hist., 300; 

Shiawassee, 158. 
Paul W., set. Mich., i860? Isabella, 

Riley, b. Westfield, 1766; set. Vt. 

Lenawee Hist. I, 288. 
Williamson, Britton, set. Mich., 1840? 

Mecosta, 194. 
Williard, Julia, b. Berkshire Co., 1815; 

m. 1st, Stephen L. Gilbert of O.; m. 

2d, Marcus Van of Mich. Hillsdale 

Port, 753- 
Willis, Lucretia, m. 1830? John Seaman 

of N. Y. and Mich. Newaygo, 214 
Willis, Richard Storrs, b. Boston, 1819; 

set. Mich. Detroit, 1104; Wayne Land., 

Wilmarth, Susan, b. Stockbridge; m. 

1815? Charles De Land of N. Y. and 

Mich. Saginaw Port., 625. 
Wilmer, Nancy, b. Stockbridge, 1795? 

m. Ethan Brown of N. Y. Mecosta, 

Wilmouth, Arbelia, b. 1795; m. Ansel 

Snow of Mass. and Mich. Kalamazoo 

Hist, 415; Kalamazoo Port., 866. 
Wilson, Charles S., b. Springfield, 1819; 

set. Mich., 1838. Allegan Twent, 572- 
■ Daniel, b. Berkshire Co., 1810; set. 

Mich., 1836. Branch Hist., facing 312. 
David, b. Bellingham, 1766; set. 

Conn., 1776. Lenawee Hist I, 39& 
Martin, b. Norwich, 1794; set. Mich., 

1838. St. Clair, 122. 

■ Rebecca, b. Adams, 1709; m. 1822 

_ Asa Hill of Mass., N. Y. and Mich. 
* Lenawee Hist. II, 317, 375. 
Reuben, b. Berkshire Co., 1772; set 

N. Y., Mich., 1835. Branch Hist, 

facing 312; Branch Port, 188. 
Samuel, set. Vt, N. Y., Mich., 1838. 

Genesee Port, 655. 

William J., b. Boston, 1866; set 

Mich., 1871. Ionia Port, 564. 
Winchell, Dennis, m. 1830? William 

Homes of N. Y. and Mich. Newaygo, 

Winchester, Lucy, b. Petersham, 1807; 

m. Levi Babbitt of N. Y. and Mich. 

Jackson Port., 620. 
Phebe, b Middlesex Co.; m. 1800? 

Jesse Stowell of Mass. and N. Y. 

Jackson Port., 275. 
Wing, Austin E., b. Conway, 1792; set 

O., Mich., 1815? Monroe, 151. 
Benjamin, b. Hardwick, 1774; set. 

N. Y., 1815? Mich., 1832. Washtenaw 

Hist, 870. 
Benjamin, b. Hawley, 1832; set. Mo., 

1869, Mich., 1875. Isabelle, 498. 
Elijah, b. 1775; set N. Y., 1814, 

Lenawee Hist. II, 265. 
- Elnathan, set. N. Y., 1810? Clinton 

Port., 774. 
Wing, Walden, b. Washington, 1814; set 

N. Y., 1826; Mich., 1838. Lenawee 

Hist. II, 265; Lenawee Port., 947. 
Winship, Nehemiah, b. Lexington; set 

N. Y., 1700? Genesee Port., 355. 
Winslow, George W., b. Colerain, 1809; 

set. Mich., 1835. St. Clair, 119. 
Sarah, m. 1830? Daniel McLaren 

of N. Y. and Mich. Washtenaw Hist, 

Witherell, James, b. Mansfield, 1759; 

set. Conn., 1783, Vt., 1788, Mich., 1808 

or 1810. Detroit, 1132; Wayne Chron., 

125, 275; Wayne Land., 287. 
Withington, William H., b. Dorchester, 

1835; set. Mich., 1857. Jackson Hist, 

757; Jackson Port., 791. 
Wixson, Solomon; set. N. Y. 1790? <*• 

1812. Branch Port., 295. 

Wolcott, Axa, m. 1810? Elijah Daniels 
of N. Y. Ingham Port., 733- 

Jason B., b. Berkshire Co., 1787; set 

N. Y., O., Mich. Hillsdale Port., 942. 

Wonsey, Henry, set Mich., 1825. St 
Clair, 708. 

Wood, Abner B., b., 1784; set N. Y., 
Mich., 1836. Ingham Port, 741. 

4 6 


Wood, Andrew, b. Middlebury, 1783; set. 
N. Y., 1793. Macomb Hist., 765. 

Charles M., b. W. Brookfield, 1826; 

set. N. Y., Mich., 1845. Ingham Port., 

— —Cynthia, b. Cheshire, 1783; m. 1807, 
Henry Bowen, 2d. of Mass. and N. Y. 
Lenawee Hist. II, 195. 

Isaac W., b. Westboro, 1844; set. 

Mich., 1872. Kent, 1175. 

Jedediah, set. N. Y., 1803? Hills- 
dale Port., 404. 

Joel, set. N. Y., 1S24? O., 1847, 

Mich., 1882. Clinton Port, between 
754 and 774- 

Jonas B., set. N. Y., 1820? Muske- 
gon Port, 514. 

Levi, of Pelham; Revolutionary 

soldier; set. N. Y., 1803. Hillsdale 
Port, 404. 

Louisa, m. t8to? Spencer Marsh of 

N. Y. Jackson Hist., 834. 
• Mehitable, m. 1815? Aaron Dun- 
ham of N. Y. and O. Lenawee Port., 

Susan B., b. Westfteld, 1814: m. 1834 

John Benson of Mich. Saginaw Hist., 

Timothy, b. Springfield; set. N. Y.? 

1830? Saginaw Hist., 940. 
Woodard, Jonas, b. Dana; set. Mich., 

1831. Kalamazoo Hist., 429. 
Woodbury, Abigail, b. Beverly, 1776; m. 

Ebenezer Fiske. Branch Port., 341. 
George B., b. Sutton or Worcester, 

1816; set. N. Y., Mich. 1837 or 1840. 

Grand River. 441; Muskegon Hist., 77; 

Muskegon Port., 124. 
Jeremiah P.. b. 1805; set. N. Y., 

Mich., 1836. Kalamazoo Port., 233. 
Lydia, b. Salem; m. 1817 Curtis 

Brigham of Mass. and Mich. Kala- 
mazoo Port., 361. 
Woodcock, David F., set. N. Y„ Mich. 

Berrien Port., 509. 

Woodmansee, George, set. Mich? Gra- 
tiot, 608. 

Woodruff, Harriet A., m. Albert C. 
Noble of N. Y. and Mich. Ingham 
Port., 859- 

Woods, David, b. Shutesbury, 1777; set. 
Vt, 1800? N. Y., 1837. Jackson Port, 


Woodward, F. E., b. Millbury, 1813; set. 

Mich., 1839. St. C'air, 122. 
Woodworth, John, b. 1775; set N. Y. 

Lenawee Hist. II, 191. 

Woolcott, Samuel, set O., Mich. Ber.- 
rien Port., 729. 

-Warren, set. O., Mich.; d. 1877. Ber- 
rien Port., 729. 

Woolson, Asa b. Lunenburg, 1767; set 

Vt Bay Gansser, 501. 
Worden, Clark, set. Mich., 1825. St 

Clair, 725. 

Worth, Richard, b. Nantucket; set N. 
Y., 1780? Lenawee Port, 838. 

Worthington, Henry, b. Agawam Cor- 
ners, 1814; set. O., Mich., 1840. Ber- 
rien Twent, 429. 

Henry, b. Springfield, 1815; set 

Mich. Cass Twent., 89. 
Wright B. W., b. Plympton, 1838; set 

Mich., 1855. Houghton, 286; Northern 

P., 198; Upper P., 451. 

-Clarinda, m. 1825? Zebedee Phil- 
lips of N. Y. Ingham Port., 495. 

David, b. Northfield; set. N. Y., 

1800? Kent, 793. 

Deodatus E., b. Williamstown, 

1812; set N. Y., Mich., 1836 or 1837. 
Gratiot, 623; Jackson Hist., 1020; Jack- 
son Port., 593; Northern M., 373. 

Emma H., of New Marlboro;; m. 

1884 James W. Woodworth of Mich. 
Clinton Port., 884. 

— — Ermina, m. 1815? Samuel Livermore 
of Mass. Saginaw Port., 481. 

Frederick, b. Berkshire Co., 1785; 

set N. Y., 1814 or 1824; Mich., 1836. 
Jackson Hist., 1020; Jackson Port., 593; 
Northern M., 373. 

Jason K., set. Penn., 1840? North- 
ern P., 207. 

Joseph S., set. N. Y., 1835? Mich., 

1870. Jackson Hist, 824. 

Marcia, b. Wilbraham, 1791; m - 

Obed Edwards of O. Monroe, 476. 



Wright, Philander, b. Northampton, 
1805; set Wis. Kent, 638. 

Sarah or Sally, b. Deerfield, 1795 

or 1796; m. 1816 Joseph Woodman of 
N. Y., and Mich. Ionia Port., 352; 
Kent, 1406; Wayne Chron., 133. 

Solomon, graduate of Williams col- 
lege; set. Mich., 1837. Grand River, 

William, set. N. H., N. Y. f 1815. 

Genesee Port., 897. 

Wyllvs, Rufus, b. 1805; set. O., 111., 
Mich., 1851. Hillsdale Port, 258. 

Wyman, Jonathan, b. Concord, 1769 or 
1774; set N. H., N. Y., 1804. Lena- 
wee Hist. I, 290; Lenawee Port, 797. 

Thomas, set N. Y., 1825? Oakland 

Biog., 165. 
Yaw, Lydia, b. Berkshire Co., 1836; m. 

Daniel -Harris of Mich. Berrien Port, 

Yaw, Theodore, b. N. Adams; set Mich., 

1852. Berrien Twent, 796. 
Young, Henry, b. Martha's Vineyard; set 

N. Y., 1800? Northern P., 439- 
James H., b. Boston, 1798; set 

Mich., 1830. Washtenaw Hist., 1411; 

Washtenaw Port, 468. 
Young, Joseph, set N. Y., 1815? Shiwas- 

see, 530. 
Youngs, Curtis S., b. Lanesboro; set 

N. Y., 1825? Mich., 1836. Branch 

Twent., 861. 

It will be noted that few cross references have been used. Names are spelled 
in every case exactly as found in the records, with references made from one 
form of name to another only when both forms seem to be employed by the same 

It is assumed that the searcher will know the various spellings of a family 
name; such as Waterman and Watterman, Whitmore and Whittemore, Willis and 
Wyllys, etc. We know of no better guide to such variations than the Index to 
vols. 1 — 50 of the New England historical and genealogical register. 

When this work was undertaken, every effort was made to find and 
index all the Michigan county histories in existence. Inquiries were made 
of the large libraries of Michigan and the libraires outside that seemed 
likely to have any considerable number of these books; and every work 
of this character possessed or known by these institutions was located 
and indexed. Still it is not strange that other works have come to our 
attention (a few of them published since our search). 

The following have been noted and are listed in the same form as 
those on pages 1 — 5. It is needless to say they have not been indexed. 

It may be added that the Library of Congress has made large addi- 
tions to its collection of Michigan material and now possesses 70 of the 
works, indexed, lacking only Jackson Port., Lake Huron, and Lansing. 

Alcona. History of Alcona Co. by 
Charles P. Reynolds, 1877. (No copy 

Alpena. Centennial history of Alpena 
County ... By David D. Oliver. Al- 
pena, Mich, Argus printing hous^, 
190^. i86p. (L. C.) 

Genesee Biog. Biographical history of 
Genesee County. Indianapolis, B. F. 
Bowen & Co. [1908?]. 40ip. (L. C.) 

Grand Traverse. History of Grand 
Traverse and Leelanaw counties. By 
Sprague & Smith. B. F. Bowen & Co., 
1903. 8o6p. (No copy located) 

Gratiot Hist. Gratiot County, Mich- 
igan. Historical, biographical, statis- 
tical . . .Willard D. Tucker, Saginaw, 
Mich., Press of Seeman & Peters, 1913. 
1353P. (L. C.) 

Jackson DeLand. DeLand's history ot 
Jackson County ... by Col. Charles 
V. DeLand. [Logansport? Ind], B. 
F. Bowen, 1903. 1123P. (L. C.) 
Leelanaw County, see Grand Trav- 

Lenawee Memoirs. Memoirs of Lena- 
wee County . . . Richard I. Bonner. 
Madison, Wis., Western historical as- 
sociation, 1009. 2v. (L. C.) 



Manistee Cent. Centennial history of 
Manistee County, containing addresses 
by Hon. John C. Blanchard and Hon. 
B. M. Cutcheon. (No copy located) 

Manistee Hist. History of Manistee, 
Mason and Oceana counties. [Chicago, 
H. R. Page & co., 1S82] 78, 154, 
88p. (L. C.) 

(Each county has special title page.) 
Mason County, see Manistee. 

Northern M. Bozven. Northern Mich- 
igan. Chicago, B. F. Bowen & co. 
1905. (No copy located) 

Northern M. Powers. A history of 
northern Michigan and its people by 
Percy F. Powers. Chicago, Lewis 
publishing company, 1912. 3v. (L. C.) 

Northern P. Sawyer. History of the 
Northern peninsula. By Alvah L. 
Sawyer, 191 1. (No copy located) 
Oceana County see Manistee. 

St. Joseph Biog. Biographies of St. 
Joseph County. Chapman bros., 1889. 
6o9p. (No copy located) 

St. Joseph Cutler. History of St. Jo- 
seph County . . . H. G. Cutler. Chi- 
cago and New York. Lewis publish- 
ing company, 191 1. 2v. (L. C. 

Wexford. History of Wexford County 
. . by John H. Wheeler. [Logans- 
port, Ind.] B. F. Bowen, 1903. 557p. 
(L. C.) 


Albert W. Dennis. 

John N. McClintock, one of the editors of the Massachusetts Magazine, 
died at his home in Dorchester, Mass., August 13, 1914. 

Mr. McClintock was the son of Capt. John and Mary B. (Shaw) 
McClintock, born at East Winthrop, Me., May 12, 1846, the family remov- 
ing to Hallowell, Me., two years later. He belonged to a sea faring fam- 
ily. His father followed the sea for more than half a century, and his 
grandfathers, Wm. McClintock and Wm. Shaw, and one of his father's 
brothers, were sailors. When about ten years of age, the boy John N., 
accompanied by his mother, made a 
voyage to London and Liverpool. This 
voyage was made in the ship "Dash- 
away," a half clipper of 1000 tons bur- 
then, built for Capt. McClintock in the 
Hollowell ship yard. 

John was a natural sailor. He 
learned the names of all ropes and dif- 
ferent parts of the ship and equipment 
and without fear he would climb to 
dizzy heights. Although Capt. Mc- 
Cintock was a thorough seaman he 
had strong objections to any of his sons 
following in his footsteps. The father 
noted the aptitude of the son for nauti- 
cal things and dreaded the possible 
outcome. He also noted the boy's de- 
sire to read and study. After consid- 
erable thought the father proposed to 
the son a course at college if he would agree not to go to sea. The son 
accepted and both stood by the bargain. 

He was educated in the public schools, the old Hallowell Academy and 
Bowdoin College, graduating from the latter in 1867, ranking high in Eng- 
lish and mathematics. Later he received the degree of A. M., from Bow- 



: • 



After his graduation he received an appointment in the United States 
Coast Survey and for eight years was engaged in geodetic and topographi- 
cal surveys from Maine to Texas and on Lake Champlain. Upon leaving 
the Coast Survey he made his home in Concord, N. H., and engaged in 
general surveying until 1892 when he removed to Dorchester, Mass., where 
he was extensively engaged in surveying and laying out land. 

While living in Concord, Mr. McClintock found ample opportunity to 
indulge his literary taste by editing and publishing the Granite Monthly 
in Concord, N. H., the Bay State Magazine in Boston, and writing a 
history of New Hampshire. 

Soon after taking up his residence in Dorchester, Mr. McClintock asso- 
ciated himself with Amasa S. Glover of Brockton, w r ho, a few years before, 
had discovered a new method of rendering sewage innocuous by a very 
simple treatment. This method Mr. Giover patented. Mr. McClintock 
took up the task first of introducing this new discovery and later of estab- 
lishing the validity of the patent. While Mr. Glover's discovery was in a 
measure an accident and possibly the scientific cause which led to the 
destruction of the organic matter in sewage was unknown to him; he had 
in fact discovered the great modern method of "septic" action, or, stated 
differently, had found a way to set the bacteria which exist in sewage, 
to work converting the putrid wastes into their simple elements and ren- 
dering the once polluted water to a reasonably pure state. This method is 
now adopted by the leading engineers of the world but Mr. Glover did not 
live to be rewarded. 

After Mr. Glover's death, Mr. McClintock became the owner of the 
Glover patent, and for many weary years undertook to establish his claim 
for recognition. His enthusiasm and thorough knowledge of the subject 
enabled him to get the support of some of the ablest lawyers and engin- 
eers in the country. He also succeeded in bringing men of means to his 
aid. The case was tried in the different courts until it finally reached the 
United States Court of Appeals, and Mr. McClintock, at the time he was 
struck with his fatal illness, was ready to deliver his own brief to the 
august Court of Appeals. So exhaustive had been his study of this subject 
that few engineers of the country were so well posted on the subject of 
sewage treatment. During the progress of this case he was paid the 
high honor of being permitted to argue his own case before the court 
and have it reopened when his lawyers thought it was finally settled. 

Mr. McClintock married Miss Josephine Tilton of Concord, N. H., by 
whom he is survived. He also leaves a son, John Tilton McClintock, a 


Boston architect, and a daughter, Mrs. Robert B. Bellamy, born Arabella 
Chandler McClintock, and a grand-daughter, Josephine McClintock Bel- 
lamy. He also leaves a sister, Mary Elizabeth McClintock of Readfield, 
Me., and two brothers, who are also well-known civil engineers. 

One of his brothers, William E. McClintock, was eight years connected 
with the United States Coast Survey, ten years City Engineer of Chelsea, 
sixteen years connected with the Highway Commission of Massachusetts, 
during which time the state highway system was inaugurated. He is often 
spoken of as the father of good roads. He lectured twelve years on High- 
way Engineering at Harvard and was Chairman of the Board appointed 
by the Governor to govern Chelsea after the great conflagration of 1908. 
He is a member of the American Society of Civil Engineers and past presi- 
dent of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers. 

The other brother, J. Y. McClintock, was at Bowdoin College one year, 
on surveys of Northern Pacific Railroad, Chief Engineer of Boston & 
Maine Railroad for a time. Before that he was on the work of extending 
their line from Berwick Junction into Portland, Superintendent of United 
Gas Company of Rochester, N. Y., City Engineer of Rochester, Commis- 
sioner of Public Works, Rochester, N. Y., County Engineer of Monroe 
County, N. Y. 

Mr. McClintock was a devoted husband, a kind father and a loyal 
friend. His home was more than anything else to him, and those who ever 
enjoyed his hospitality never tired of coming under its influence again 
and often. 

<&ritm^m $c (&$mmmi 

on goofye? mtb Outlier j&ihjectjs? 

Here and there, all over Massachusetts and New England, are many 
individuals whose lives link strangely with the past. At Winthrop 
lives a man, yet vigorous and active, who will be one hundred years of 
age in another year. His name is Daniel Hollinger and he has been a 
resident of this country since 1S36, though born in Bavaria. He is a 
chemist and a 32nd degree Mason. His father was a soldier in the armies 
of Napoleon, and fought under him in the fateful battle of Waterloo. 

There are yet living in Massachusetts scores, perhaps hundreds of 
men who spoke with Abraham Lincoln and clasped his hand. Judge 
Francis M. Thompson, of Greenfield, whose interesting reminiscences are 
running in the Massachusetts Magazine now, relates in earlier chapters, 
business dealings with the great Emancipator, both before and after his 
nomination for president. Judge Thompson's description of his first in- 
terview is interesting. He did not find him to be the uncouth rustic so 
often charged. But gentlemanly in manner, and pleasing in appearance 
This leads us to the thought that much written about Lincoln and com- 
monly accepted as so, is not true. Albert E. Pillsbury, in his "Lincoln 
and Slavery," says : "All through the web of this life are woven threads 
of marvel and mystery. People read about Lincoln with a weird sense 
of the supernaturaj, of something apart from human affairs. They think 
of another Man of Sorrows, and the journey from the manger to the 
cross, the crime of Cain, the translation of Elijah. Nothing in human 
biography stirs the imagination like this. The man of history is already 
become the man of fable, and in some distant day learned doctors will 
dispute whether Abraham Lincoln was a real character or a hero of tradi- 
tion, belonging in limbo with Romulus and King Arthur." 

New England Genealogists are fortunate in the matter of publications 
prepared for their especial use. From the first appearance of "Durrie" 
down to the recent completion of the splendid "Index to persons" from 



the first fifty volumes of the "New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register" there has been no lack of hand books, indexes, guides, biblio- 
graphies and reference lists making available the wealth of material in 

There remain many things, however, which may yet be done to aid 
the never ending search. One of the genealogist's greatest perplexities is 
to follow the New England "Pioneers" who went to the great west in 
the early half of the last century. With no directories and no vital 
records to aid, many individuals are lost sight of entirely and the "line" 
ends with : he went West. 

Mr. Charles A. Flagg, when in charge of American History at the 
Library of Congress, in Washington, discovered that in so called county 
histories, of which the West had a great many printed in the seventies 
(principally the production of men in Chicago and Philadelphia who 
published biographies and portraits at so much per head) a great deal 
of valuable genealogical material was contained, and he conceived the 
possibility of making complete index to all the names both genealogical 
and biographical to be found in these county histories. 

Taking the State of Michigan as a unit he proceeded to compile such a 
list, covering men from Massachusetts who migrated to that State. 

With the care and thoroughness characteristic of him in the prepara- 
tion of his Guide to Massachusetts Local History, published in 1907, he 
has completed his task in this issue of the Massachusetts Magazine. 

Indexing over 3,000 surnames of Massachusetts Men who went west, 
(not only to Michigan, but elsewhere, whenever mentioned in the 
Michigan books) the list should give many a valuable clue to both pro- 
fessional and private searchers, and be the means of "restoring many a 
lost branch to its proper place." 

Very few of the seventy odd volumes included in this index are avail- 
able in the great libraries of Massachusetts. The Berkshire Athenaeum 
of Pittsfield, the Essex Institute of Salem and the Public Library of 
Worcester had none at all: The State Library at Boston had one volume 
only and the Public Library and the New England Historic Genealogi- 
cal Society of Boston, two each. There may be a few more in other col- 
lections in the State but probably no considerable number. Among 
other libraries comparatively near are the New York State Library at 
Albany with 17 volumes and the Lenox branch of the Public Library 



of New York City with 18. Of the total of 73 works listed, the Library 
of Congress now has all but 3. 

We are all reading in the newspapers of today a great deal about 
"Billy Sunday," a revivalist, who is holding wonderful meetings in Phil- 
adelphia. Nearly two hundred years ago the American colonies 
were similarly stirred by the eloquence of a revivalist by the name of 
George Whitefield. It is said that with daring imagery and pathos he 
moved his hearers at will with every emotion of which human nature is 

The 27th day of December, 191 5, was the 200th anniversary of White- 
field's birth. He was born in Gloucester, England, became associated 
with John and Charles Wesley while at college, became bishop and 
itinerant preacher. Four years after graduating he came to New Eng- 
land. His death occurred at Newburyport, Mass., Sept. 30, 1770, whence 
he had driven, after delivering a sermon lasting two hours, at Exeter, N. 
H., and he lies buried in Newburyport under the church on Federal 

Benjamin Franklin makes mention of his Philadelphia meetings in his 
autobiography : 

"In 1739, arrived among us from Ireland the Reverend Mr. White- 
field, who had made himself remarkable there as an itinerant preacher. 
He was at first permitted to preach in some of our churches ; but the 
clergy, taking a dislike to him, soon refused him their pulpits, and he was 
obliged to preach in the fields. The multitudes of all sects and denomi- 
nations that attended his sermons were enormous, and it was a matter of 
speculation to me, who was one of the number, to observe the extraor- 
dinary influence of his oratory on his hearers, and how much they 
admired and respected him, notwithstanding his common abuse of them, 
by assuring them, they were naturally half beasts and half devils. It was won- 
derful to see the change soon made in the manners of our inhabitants. 
From being thoughtless or indifferent about religion, it seemed as if all 
the world were growing religious, so that one could not walk through the 
town in an evening without hearing psalms sung in different families of 
every street. . . I happened soon after to attend one of his sermons, in the 
course of whicli I perceived he intended to finish with a collection, and I 
silently resolved that he should get nothing from me. I had in my 


pocket a handful of copper money, three or four silver dollars, and five 
pi'stoles in gold. As he proceeded I began to soften, and concluded to 
give the copper. Another stroke of his oratory made me ashamed of 
that, and determined me to give the silver ; and he finished so admirably, 
that I emptied my pocket wholly into the collectors dish, gold and all." 

Francis Parkman, recognized today by the most competent critics as 
the best of all our historians, gave Boston five million dollars for her 
public parks, and gave his residence facing the common, on Beacon Street, 
as a permanent memorial and home for the Boston park supervisors. 
Dead less than twenty-two years, the Finance Commission and the Mayor 
propose to flout his munificence and insult his memory by selling his 
home, because they can get a good price for it — $70,000! The income 
from his $5,000,000 gives them annually about $200,000! Ye Gods! 

At the mid-winter meeting of the Society of Colonial Families, in Jan- 
uary, the following election of officers resulted: President, Dean George 
Hodges ; secretary, George A. Smith ; treasurer, Ernest A. Washburn ; 
historian, Mrs. Anna L. Baily ; national councillors, George B. Gallup, 
Arthur A. Gray, William A. Randall, John L. Porter, Edward D. Allen, 
Charles E. MacKusick, Frank E. H. Gary, Miss Susanna Willard, Mrs. 
Abbie M. Chamberlain, Newton C. Smith, Mrs. Lora A. Underlain, Mrs. 
Edith L. Wilson, Charles E. Slocum, Frank E. Shedd, Mrs. F. W. Page, 
Mrs. Myra B. Lord, Mitchell Wing, Miss Georgie M. Marston, Mrs. Ed- 
win B. Miles, Earl G. Manning, Charles E. Lawrence, William H, Gove, 
Vernon A. Field, Gilbert W. Chapin, William D. Brigham, Gardner 
Bates, Charles W. Walker, William H. Foster, Miss Almira E. Simmons 
and James F. Chase. 

With a parade, an elaborate program of exercises in Tremont Temple, 
and a dinner at the American House, the one hundredth anniversary of 
the birth of General Joe Hooker was celebrated in Boston, November 
13th. By the speakers he was referred to as "the most eminent soldier 
Massachusetts turned out in the civil war." 

The Worcester Antiquarian Society elected the following officers at 
their annual meeting in October: President, 'Waldo Lincoln, Worcester; 


vice-presidents, Samuel A. Green, Boston, and Andrew McFarland Davis, 
Cambridge ; secretary for foreign correspondence, James P. Baxter, Port- 
land ; secretary for domestic correspondence. Charles Francis Adams, Lin- 
coln; recording secretary, Dr. Charles L. Nichols, Worcester; treasurer, 
A. George Bullock, Worcester; librarian, Clarence S. Brigham, Worcester; 
councillors, Henry W. Cunningham of Boston, Clarence W. Bowen of 
New York, George P. Winship of Providence, Nathaniel Paine, Samuel 
S. Green, G. Stanley Hall, Samuel Utley, Arthur P. Rugg, Charles G. 
Washburn and Francis H. Dewey, all of Worcester. 

Commenting on the Centennial anniversary of the peace treaty be- 
tween England and the United States, in a recent sermon, Rev. T. D. 
Bacon of the North Unitarian church, Salem, said: "It is remarkable 
that there should have been nearly 4,000 miles of undefended frontier 
between us and British possessions, unmolested for all that time. It was 
a happy thought of John Quincy Adams to secure a treaty to that effect, 
and it has helped to keep relations more peaceful. But if each govern- 
ment had not had an almost boundless west into which to expand, it is 
very doubtful whether the result would have been altogether so happy." 

The editors of the Massachusetts Magazine would like to correspond 
with persons who could compile an index to other important states, similar 
to that of Charles A. Flagg's, "Michigan Pioneers," completed in this 


^e voteD-fo.(tIa5sac{|USctt5«Hist'oru«GcocQlo9il^^ 5 rft Fta 
Published by the Salem Press Ca Salem, Mass. USA 



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Wilt |Has0ad|xts^Ifs JJtajjamte. 

A Quarterly c7VIagazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 


George Sheldon, 


Charles A. Flagg, 


Dr. Frank A. Gardner, 


Lucie M.Gardner, 


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Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c 

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By Rey. Thomas Fraklin Waters 

Tradition has it that one day a stranger in Rowley, meeting the Rev. 
Ezekiel Rogers, Pastor of the Church, inquired : "Are you the man that 
serves here?" "No {"answered the minister, "I am the man that rules 
here." It may be but a bit of olden gossip, but it is a wholly reliable 
illustration of the recognized place and power of the Puritan minister. 
He was a man of authority. When the famous Ipswich teacher. Rev. 
John Norton, summoned his people, old and young, to commit his cate- 
chism to memory and Thomas Scott was found unprepared, his case 
was taken at once to the Quarter Sessions Court, March, 1650, and he 
was bidden, under pain of a fine, to prepare himself for the next inquisi- 
tion. At September court, "not appearing to make known that he had 
learned Mr. Norton's catechism," it was ordered that the fine be collected. 
No tolerance found favor with the ministers. Rev. Nathaniel Ward, 
the minister of Ipswich, and, because of his legal training, the framer of 
'the Body of Liberties," declared himself beyond a shadow of doubt 
in his "Simple Cobler :" 

"It is said That men ought to have Liberty of their Conscience and 
that it is persecution to debarre them of it; I can rather stand amazed 
*han reply to this; it is an astonishment to think that the braines of men 
should be parboyl'd in such impious ignorance. Let all the wits under 
the Heavens lay their heads together and finde an Assertion worse than 
this (one excepted) I will petition to be chosen the universall Ideot of 
the world." 

Church of England man, clinging fondly to his prayer book and ritual, 




Anabaptists conscientiously opposed to infant baptism, Mrs. Hutchinson 
with her philosophical vagaries, the Quaker, fanatical and frenzied in his 
opposition to the regular way, and every other who dared diverge a 
finger's breadth from the beaten path of doctrine and practise were 
Anathema, and they were summoned to the bar of Justice to receive the 
penalty that was due them. 

The minister was friend and adviser of the Judges, and in that dark 
hour when the General Court faced the impending loss of the Charter of 
the Province, and with it all civil liberty and the whole foundation of civic 
life, they invited the ministers of Boston and the neighboring towns to 
meet with them, and having adjourned the session, gave themselves for 
hours to prayer. In every family, when sickness came, there seems to 
have been little reliance upon the chirurgeon with his simple nostrums 
and awful surgery, but there was great reliance upon the minister and his 
prayers. He knelt by the bedside of the dying infant. He went down 
to the Valley of Shadows with the men and women given over to his care. 
Major John Walley. one of the Judges of the Superior Court, was afflicted 
with severe pain in his foot. Judge Sewall records : "Major Walley has 
Prayer at his house respecting his Foot; began between 2 and 3 P. M. 
Mr. Pemberton, first, Mr. Bridge, Mr. Colman, Mr. YVadsworth, Dr. C. 
Mather. . . . Major Walley was easy all the time of the exercise. 
Had not one Twinging pain." (Decern. 3: 1711) 

When he preached the Gospel, he looked down upon the whole com- 
munity, parents and children, mistress and maid, prudential man, magis- 
trate, and the man of rudest toil. He determined whether any man was 
worthy to be admitted to the church and as church membership was the 
essential condition of being a freeman, he held the civic privilege of every 
man in the hollow of his hand. 

No wonder the Puritan minister magnifed his office and was jealous 
of his prerogatives. No wonder, too, that those who felt his power often 
spoke disrespectfully of the man and of his office and that unregenerate 
human nature often rebelled. Scandal ever loves a shining mark. In every 
community there was resistance, in one fashion or another, to the rule 
of the Puritan Church. 

I know of no more accurate and comprehensive medium of informa- 
tion regarding the nature and extent of this ancient insurgency, than is 



afforded by the records and files of the courts of that day. An endless 
procession passed before the magistrates charged with offenses in infinite 
variety. Sometime only the name, the offence charged and the penalty 
decreed appear, but frequently there are lull depositions and minute rec- 
ords, and such revelation is made of the true life of churches and com- 
munities, that we hear again the sharp contentions, note the hot and bitter 
animosities, and discover much of jangling discord, marring the most 
solemn services and the holiest hours. 

Rev. Thomas Cobbett, minister at Lynn and then for many years at 
Ipswich, faced slanderous detraction of hi? preaching. Mr. Walton of 
Lynn declared he "had as leave to heare a dog bark as to hear Mr. Cob- 
bet preach," and in Ipswich the notorious Elizabeth Perkins vented her 
spleen against her husband's parents, brothers and sisters, "wishing they 
were all tied bak to bak that she might see them carried to the gallos, 
there to be hung," and then impudently charged Mr. Cobbett with gross 
immorality; and her husband presumed to say that "Mr Cobit was more 
fitt to be in a hog sty than in a pulpit." Both suffered for their rash and 
indecent slander, the woman being sentenced to stand in meeting, with a 
paper placard fastened upon her: "For reproaching ministers and her 
husbands natural relations." 

Edmund Marshall of Manchester was presented in 165 1 for absenting 
himself from the public ordinances three or four Sabbath days, and for 
reproaching Mr. Thomas Dunham, in saying that he had preached blas- 
phemy and was a common liar. Some of the women of the Gloucester 
church were moved to extraordinary vituperation of Rev. Wm. Perkins. 
Mrs. Holgrave was presented in 1652, "for reproachful and unbecoming 
speech against him. . y* if it were not for the Law shee would 

never come to the meeting the Teacher was so dead, & accordingly she 
did seldom come & withal persuaded Goodwife Vincent to come to her 
house on the Sabbath day & reade good books affirming that the Teacher 
was fitter to be a Ladyes Chamberman than to be in y e pulpit." For this 
she was sentenced to publish in an audible voice her humble acknowledge- 
ment that she had done very sinfully. 

Goodwife Vincent, poisoned it may be by Mrs. Holgrave, outdistanced 
her teacher a few years later by standing in the doorway of the meeting 
house, with arms spread, hand on each door post, and telling the teacher 
if he had come to teach her he had better leave his head behind. For 


this she made apology, explaining that a few days before he had said: 
"If I come to teach here as long as there is an abler man in the Town, 1 
will give you my head from my shoulders," saying what she did "out 
of the tenderness of her conscience." 

Elizabeth, wife of John Legg of Marblehead, was very indiscreet in 
her talk regarding Rev. Mr. Walton in 1654. and the Court ordered that 
she take her choice between sitting half an hour in the stocks or making 
acknowledgment publicly, when called by the Constable: "I Elizabeth 
Legg, do acknowledge that I did evill and sinfull in speaking slitelv and 
scornfully of Mr. Walton & In perticular In saying I could have a boy 
from the Colledg that would preach better than Mr. Walton for half y 9 
wages." Her repentance was formal and insincere, for she was guilty oi 
other slighting speeches a few years later, saying that "if the people fol- 
lowed Mr Walton's Praying or ministrie they would all go to Hell;" 
and coming from meeting one Sunday, after Mr. Walton had reproved 
one that slept in meeting, she proclaimed, "Mr. Walton is a catch-pole." 
Thomas Coomes had his slur against Mr. Walton that he preached noth- 
ing but lies, and that he was a ''Cheater and a cousener/' 

Ministers in general were the subject of the rasping charges of the wife 
of Thomas Oliver of Salem, who affirmed that they were biood-thirsty 
men, for which she was ordered to "come in the next Lord's day and 
publicly acknowledge that she had spoken sinfully and that she is sorry 
for it to satisfaction or else she is to be tyed to the whipping post and 
there be half an hour with a split stick fastened to her tong." 

Vexed with these malicious gibes and sneers, which were matter of 
common talk in the community, the minister found often more serious 
trouble awaiting him in the meeting house on the Lord's Day. For sev- 
eral, years there was sharp wrangling in the Lynn church regarding infant 
baptism. As new born babes generally were baptized on the first Sunday 
after their birth and as families were large, nearly every Sunday witnesesd 
this ordinance. As early as 1641, William Winter was presented for 
holding that "it is no ordinance of God" and that **it is a badge of the 
whore of Rome"; and for saying that Mr. Cobbett taught lieing against his 
own conscience. Thomas Patience not only held but fomented this error 
and "hindered his child from partaking of the ordinance." The Lady 
Deborah Moody and others held to this heresy and answered to it before 
the Court. William Gould, for his reproachful and unseemly speeches con- 


cerning and against the rule of the church, was sentenced to sit in the 
stocks an hour and be severely whipped on the Lord's day (io mo 1642.) 

But the trouble grew with years and Mr. Cobbett had many detractors, 
whose scandalous talk became more vehement. The same William Winter 
came to Court again in 1645, f° r saying that "they who stayed while a 
child is baptized doe worship the devil," and "when he was reproved by two 
brethren, he justified his former speech, and declared that they who stayed 
took the name of the Father, Son & Holy Ghost in vayne and broke the 
Sabbath. " It remained, however, for a June Sabbath, in 1646, to witness 
the most determined outbreak. A child was presented for baptisim, and 
thereupon a half dozen or more arose and left the meeting house. As they 
went the Teacher desired the congregation to take notice of such as did 
withdraw themselves from this ordinance. One man replied that "he 
desired also that they should take notice that to him this child is no fit 
subject for the ordinance of baptism." The whole company were sum- 
moned into court and fined 2s. Jd. apiece. 

The peace and quiet of worship at Rowley was disturbed by the dis- 
orderly conduct of one of the most prominent men of the Town, Mr. Henry 
Sewall, grandfather of the judge. Humphrey Reyner made deposition 
in Dec, 1650; "Mr. Shewell was walking in the foremost seate in the 
Meeting House in Rowlye neare the Pulpit and Mr. Rogers being present 
and ready to step into the pulpit to begin prayer said Mr. Shewell cease 
your walking, to which Mr. Shewell answered : You should have come 
sooner with more words to that purpose, but he not ceasing his walking 
presently our Pastor added these words : Mr. Shewell, remember where 
you are, this is the house of God. to which Mr. Shewell answered with a 
louder voice : I know how to behave mvself in the house of God as well 
as you, with other words. Then our Pastor said, rather then that he 
disturbe the Congregation putt him out; to which Mr. Shewell replied 
Lett us see who dare. After this a Brother spake unto Mr. Shewell in 
a friendly way but Mr. Shewell with a sterne countenance and threatening 
manner said he would take -a Course with some of us, and in many other 
words I doe not now remember." This hot tempered man disturbed the 
meeting again in 165 1, with his contemptuous speeches to the minister 
and others in public meeting, and in 1654, went so far as to "hustle Mr. 
Jewet in a very offensive manner in the public assembly on the Lord's 


Rev. Samuel Phillips succeeded Mr. Rogers in the pastoral office and 
in due time found himself in conflict with some very belligerent parish- 
ioners. The teacher. Rev. Jeremiah Shepard, was the immmediate occa- 
sion of the quarrel, which convulsed the church and the Town. A council 
of the neighboring churches was called in Nov. 1675 and it advised that 
Mr. Shepard be retained until the following May, and that he then go 
elsewhere. But the trouble was not settled. It was carried into Town 
meeting and eventually into Court. John Piatt brought suit against 
Rev. Samuel Phillips, Philip Xelson also made complaint against the Pas- 
tor, and Daniel Wicome, one of the Selectmen, brought suit against John 
Pickard for saying that the Selectmen had betrayed their trust in safe- 
guarding the Town's interest. Mr. Nelson's complaint throws much light 
upon some details of this contention. He declared that he was forced to 
complain against the Pastor by his threats to deal with him, "whereby 
I may at last come to be deprived of the communion of God's saints and 
the sweete and comfortable enjoiment of God in all his holy ordinances." 

To prevent this, he declares that he has been accused of a breach of the 
5th commandment, disobedience to superiors etc. ; of the 8th command- 
ment, robbing and stealing; and of the 9th commandment, being the prin- 
cipal cause of unhappy differences. "I therefore humbly present my shat- 
tered condition to your honorable protection." Notwithstanding his piti- 
ful condition of spiritual desolation, the Court found, "that notwithstand- 
ing Mr. Philips hath used too high opposition, yet that in the main, Mr. 
Nelson hath transgressed the rules and therefore is advised to apply him- 
self to give due satisfaction to Mr. Philips and to bear the costs and 
charges of the hearing of the same." 

Two years later, it is very evident that the Pastor was not leading his 
flock by the still waters. Some aggrieved parishioners again had resort 
to the Law. Their complaint recites : "being at Rowley meeting the last 
Lord's day in the afternoon, after sermon and prayer were ended and the 
blessing concluded, Mr. Philips stayed the congregation and informed 
them that sundry persons had made their complaint against him to author- 
ity, and signified to the congregation that the said persons had borne false 
witness against him." Apparently he called Ezekiel Northend, Daniel 
Wicome and others by name. The Court heard the case and found its 
verdict: "The Court cannot but adjudge the sd Mr. Phillips to have spoken 
concerning the sd. witnesses unadvisedly and very injuriously, to their 


great reproach & discouraging of witnesses in cases of like nature, which 
ought not to be permitted, doc therefore sentence the sd. Mr. Philips for 
the sd. offence to pay as a fine to the County £5 -and the charge of the 
complainants and witnesses and fees. And whereas the sd. Mr. Philips by 
sufficient testimonie is charged with reflecting and reproaching authority, 
which he notwithstanding doth peremptorily deny & is ready to testifie by 
witness against all such speeches, the Court having no small regard to his 
protestation, doe sentence him onlv to be admonished and to pay the 
cost of ye witnesses and fees." 

Such bitter discord would be fatal to a pastorate of to-day, but the 
ancient tenure of the minister was so secure that even the most deter- 
mined opposition could not unseat him as long as a majority was loyal. 
Mr. Phillips continued in the pulpit until his death. One episode of later 
days is on record. John Tod, Senior, a tavernkeeper, was presented for 
opposition to the keeping of a fast. Daniel Wicome testified that "when 
Mr. Phillips Red the Order of the President & Councill for keeping the 
public fast on 14th of instant, John Tod Sen 1 * stood up and made answer 
& desired that the fast might be put of for . . . they had no great nede 
of Raine and said it might be as well put of to Thursday come seaven- 
night." The Fast to pray for rain was held notwithstanding and the 
tavern keeper's affront may be reflected in the conduct of his son 
Samuel, who was presented at the same Court, which tried Mr. Tod 
Senior for opposing the keeping of the Fast, for refusing to go to meeting 
on the Fast day and going pigeon shooting. 

In Old Newbury, the pastor, Rev. Thomas Parker, and Mr. Wood- 
bridge, the teacher, suffered much. John Tillison's scandalous and re- 
proachful speeches cast upon the elders in a public church meeting upon 
the Lord's day (Oct. 1650) could be borne with measurable patience, for 
he was a violent and abusive man who was guilty of abusing his wife on 
the Sabbath, throwing a bowl of water on her while sick in bed, and chain- 
ing her leg to the bed post with a plow chain to keep her in doors. (1656.) 
But the sting of Mr. Edward Woodman's venom must have rankled deep 
in their hearts. His written petitions to the Court reveal his intellectual 
keenness and his fine literary gifts, but he was a veritable thorn in the 
flesh to the reverend elders. 

He appeared in Court for the first time in March 7: 1669, on complaint 
of several of the men of the church, to answer to the charge of offensive 




language in Town meeting against Mr. Woodbridge, saying that he was 
an "Intruder, brought in by craft and subtilty and kept in notwithstand- 
ing- he was voated out twice." But against the Pastor, Mr. Parker, he 
brought the ponderous charge of ecclesiastical heresy: "xA.n apostate, a 
backslider from the Truth, that he would set up a Prelacy and have more 
Power than the Pope, for the Pope had his council of Cardinals, that his 
preaching or acting did not tend to peace or salvation, and that he was 
the cause of all the contention and miserie." These were the weapons of 
his assault. 

This Presbyterian Shibboleth was the theme of gossip in an Ipswich 
household one day at least when the Worshipful Mr. Richard Saltonstall, 
first citizen of the Town, dropped in for a little chat about the latest 
news, and it may have found lodgment in other communities, but so 
far as the Essex County Court Record shows it was localized in New- 
bury. Evidently there was a strong minority in, this church, headed by 
the redoubtable Woodman. John Webster, a lesser light, read a paper on 
the Lord's day in 1669, bringing charges against the pastor and brethren, 
and in 1671 Woodman's opposition had become so bitter that Mr. Par- 
ker's friends carried the matter again into Court. Fifty-one of the 
original papers presented in that trial are preserved, declarations of the 
various parties, records of the ecclesiastical council which had been called 
in a vain endeavor to attain peace, minutes of church meetings, and com- 
munications which passed between the contending factions. One of the 
most interesting is the ''Request'' presented by Mr. Woodman and the 
brethren with him to the council, held on April 9, 1670, and presumably 
written by him: "We have spent 25 years & more," it declares, "in un- 
comfortable and unprofitable contention and division whereby God hath 
been much dishonored, Religion much disadvantaged, our Souls much 
impoverished and our credit as a church much impared, defaimed through 
the Country for an unquiet people & irreconcilable by the long continu- 
ance of our difference & dissention & now of late the cry hereof hath bin 
more loud in the ears of the churches than in the former times." 

Mr. Woodman had withdrawn from the church. His factious minority 
had rent the church in twain. The Court found them all guilty and sen- 
tenced them all to pay fines, ranging from 20 nobles, Mr. Woodman's 
fine, to 13s. 4d. 

During this quarter century of strife over the Presbyterianism of Mr. 


Parker, some single episodes of most piquant character were interjected. 
The pews had been built to some extent in the year 1669 and the old variance 
relative to seating- the meeting took on a new phase, when Goodv Randall, 
coming into meeting, refused to sit in the seat appointed her. A better 
one was given but she was still rebellious and persisted in "climbing, ride- 
mg or striding'' over the pews, being four or five foot high and to force 
the door upon the proprietors thereof." It was in the same unhappy 
Newbury, I think, that Goodie Wolfe came in and edged in to the seat 
where Goodwife Stackhouse sat against a pillar and as Dame Stack- 
house did not or could not move, Goody Wolfe stood up before her a 
good while, then knelt down in the seat awhile, rose up again, then sat 
down on Goodwife Stackhouse's lap a little while, rose up again, and this 
continued until the persecuted woman's husband was called and helped 
her out of the meeting house. But excitement reached its highest pitch 
on a Lord's day, March 31, 1663, when Lydia Wardwell, wife of Eliakim, 
came naked into the meeting house, as a sign and token of the spiritual 
nakedness of the time. She was a Quaker and her method was charac- 
teristic of the Quakers of her day. The amiable mildness of George Fox 
and William Penn was not affected by Essex County Quakers. 

They were most numerous in Salem apparently and Rev. John Hig- 
ginson was assailed by them in virulent fashion. The wife of Nicholas 
Phelps charged that "he sent abroad his woolves and his bloodhounds 
amongst the sheep and lambs and that the priests are deceivers of the 
people." Joseph Gatchell called Mr. Higginson, "one of Halloe's Priests" 
and said, "he halloed like a hare, that the ministers preached nothing but 
damnation,, and that which they called the Scripture was not the Scrip- 
ture but the sayings of men." "A parcel of persecuting dogs," he styled 
the ministers of New England. "As for himself he was a Singing Quaker." 
When Mr. Higginson was ordained, John Smith, presumably a Quaker, 
cried out, "What you are going about to set up Our God is pulling down." 
Robert Wilson's wife made her protest against the spiritual deadness by 
"going through Salem without any clothes on." (1662). Jeremiah Rogers, 
a Salem wheelwright, refused to pay his ministerial rate in 1689, and 
when he was summoned to make payment by the constable, he broke 
forth into railing discourse concerning the Bible, that "it was not the word 
of God, but the word of the ass, the foole and the divell, and further 
said he would prove it." 


To the church in Topsfield, a singular series of very unusual troubles 
must have brought despair as well as tribulation. In 1656, a Topsfield 
man went to Court to answer to the charge of "reviling in reproachful 
language the ordinance of God and such as are in church fellowship, say- 
ing when some were together keeping a day of humiliation that they were 
howling like wolves, and lifting up their paws for their children, saying 
the gallows were built for members and members children, and if there had 
been no members of the churches there would have been no need of gaU 
lows." Zaccheus Gould "in time of singing the Psalm on Sabbath sate down 
on the end of the table about which y e minister and scribes of the people sit 
with his hat full on his head and his back toward all the rest who sat 
about the table and although spoken to by ministers & others altered not 
his posture." (March 1659.) 

Rev. Thomas Gilbert's pastorate with the Topsfield church was an 
unfortunate experience, fraught with the most unusual and inexcusable 
troubles. Mr. William Perkins appeared in the open Court the 28th of 
March, 1666-7, an d publicly exhibited a complaint or accusation against 
him in 27 particulars, "for that in public prayers and sermons, at several 
times he uttered speeches of an high nature reproachful and scandalous 
to the king's majesties & his government." He was summoned into 
Court the next day. "The Court apprehending the case to be extraordin- 
ary both in its nature and tendency without president in this country and 
no Laws have provided against such offences," bound him over in £1000 
bond to the next General Court.. Shortly after, Mr. Perkins brought two 
complaints of defamation of character against the minister, one of which 
was withdrawn, the other decided for the defendant. 

In May, 1670, the minister's love of wine involved him and his people 
in severe contention. Sarah Gould testified in Court that one Sacrament 
day, when the wine had been brought from the meeting house and poured 
into the golden cup, Mr. Gilbert drank most of it. He was overcome by it. 
He sank down in his chair, forgot to give thanks, and sang a Psalm with 
very lisping and unintelligible utterance. He went to the afternoon ser- 
vice but arrived so late that many went away before his coming. He 
went to prayer and as Thomas Baker testified, "I perceived that he was 
distempered in his head, for he did repeat many things many tymes over, 
in his prayer he lisps and when he had don to prayer, he went to singing 
& read the Psalm so as it could not be well understood, and when he had 


done singing he went to prayer again, and when he had done he was going 
to sing again, but being desired to forbear used these expressions : I bless 
God I find a great deal of comfort in it. and came out of the pulpit he sd. 
to the people I give you notis I will preach among you no more/' 

Stretching their charity to the very utmost, we must believe, the magis- 
trates did not find against him, but saw cause to counsel and admonish 
him. His wife then testified that his conduct was due to a distemper that 
came upon him sometimes when fasting and in rainy weather. In April, 
1671, he was before the Court again, charged with many reproachful and 
reviling speeches against the Court and divers other persons, his auditors, 
both in his sermons and prayers. The Court adjudged him to be sharply 
admonished, "to forbeare to vent such his distempers to the scandal of 
persons & dishonor of God & prophanation of his ordinances. And if he 
shall find himself unable to demean himself more soberly and Christianly, 
as became his office, they do think it more convenient for him to surcease 
from y e exercise of any public employment." 

Mr. Gilbert refused or was unable, from extreme instability of charac- 
ter, to profit by this severe but kindly admonition. His long suffering 
people again appeared in Court on Sept 27th (1671) with a plain statement 
of very disagreeable facts : 

"the 23d of April having bin by y* Court censured for sundry 
miscarriages in which censure Religion yea Reason mite have per- 
swaded a wise man to have submitted and to have let his infamy have 
died by degrees yet not content with y* Court sentence he by papers 
affixed to y e meeting house door deserted his office left y e Congre- 
gation and church for three Sabbaths destitute refused to com to or to 
sufer y e church to come to treat with him about his disorderly abdi- 
cation of the ministry ... he has often upbraided the church in pul- 
pit, in preaching & prayers affirms his innocence names some by 
their proper names John Thomas Thomas John. 

Wherefore we humbly Request y r Humble Worships Justice for 
y e freeing of us from such an intolerable burden and vexation. 

John Gould & others." 

The pastoral relation was sundered but at the same Court, Mr. Gilbert 
brought three suits against Mr. Gould, one for slander, one for defaming 


him, and a third for threatened assault and battery. In the last, the Court 
found for the minister. Ensign Gould, in turn, brought suit against Mr. 
Gilbert for slander in behalf of his wife and won his case. 

Rev. Jeremiah Hobart succeeded Mr. Gilbert and succeeded as well 
in walking in his footsteps, so that he became a familiar figure in the 
Courts, because of non-payment of salary, for cursing and swearing, and 
for a damaging suit for slander, which he gained, though the witnesses 
testified in detail to the most discreditable conduct on his part. Even his 
brethren in the ministry- were forced to upbraid him, and Rev. William 
Hubbard of Ipswich made complaint against his reproachful and scanda- 
lous speeches against the elders and churches, who participated in a coun- 
cil, convened to consider the troubles of his church. 

The annals of the Court reveal no such deep-rooted and violent up- 
heavals of the peace of the church in Ipswich. No doctrinal heresy seems 
to have invaded that illustrious pulpit. No protest against Presbyterian 
leanings was ever voiced and only a few low mutterings against infant 
baptism. But singularly enough, there were many disorders of another 
sort, of trivial weight compared with those which have engaged us, but 
very annoying to preacher and congregation, and in accordance with the 
manner of the time, they were settled in Court. 

That rigid method of seating the meeting was responsible for most 
of them. To give due honor to the magistrates and people of wealth and 
standing, these gentle folk and their wives were assigned their places on 
the seats or benches nearest the pulpit and with strict downward grada- 
tion of social standing. All the rest of the men and women were seated 
farther and farther back toward the rear of the meeting house and in the 
galleries. Inevitably, the young men and boys, loving mischief and al- 
ways alert for an opportunity, were set together in long rows, one behind 
another. Women and girls had their seats in the less desirable locations. 
The service droned slowly along; many in the congregation, obliged by 
the Law to attend, had no interest in the exercises, and many were in- 
competent to understand the weighty discourse. Naturally there were 
acts of disorder. 

Hot-tempered lads had altercations which led to blows. Young 
Stephen Cross, who grew to be a quarrelsome and belligerent man, struck 
another in sermon time on a lecture day and brought blood to his mouth. 
Edward Cogswell, a lad of some sixteen years, provoked the lad in 



front of him, pulling his new hat, telling him he was such a pretty fellow 
he didn't need such adorning and the like, and Thomas Bragg at last 
landed a blow upon his tormentor's nose with dire effect. The same 
Cogswell lad, as witness testified, was idle in sermon time, "going from 
one galerie to another, very idle with a stick in his hand, going from seate 
to seate, talking and laughing with boys." (1670.) 

Complaint was made against Thomas Mentor in 1673, "that he carried 
himself very irreverently and most unchristianly upon the Sabath days in 
the time of worship, 

by setting with his hat upon his head in the time of prayer, 

by taking of maids by the aprons as they came in to the meeting 
house in the time of worship, 

by putting his hand in their bosoms and then taking or snatching 
away their posies or flowers, 

by laughing and allmost all the time of worship whispering with 
those that are like himself, and also with very little boys to the ill 
example of youth, and these the said Mentor has ordinarily done 
and practised the most of the Sabaths of this year." (bept. 1673.) 

■ Richard Pasmore was charged with similar offences. Three young 
fellows were presented for laughing and spitting in one another's faces, 
pricking one another in the legs, pulling boys off their seats, and "heav- 
ing things into the other gallery among y e garls, that sit there & Braking 
y e glass windows." (May 1674) 

Elizabeth Hunt, wife of Samuel, made frequent disturbance by her 
repeated shuffling against' the chair of the daughter of her neighbor, so 
that the girl could hardly save herself from falling to the floor; and one 
Sunday Thomas Knowlton, Jr., made a bad matter worse by calling out 
on the Lord's day in prayer time: "Take notis of Goodwife Hunt, that 
makes disturbance there." For this, Knowlton was sentenced to stand in 
the meeting house on the next lecture day with a paper on his breast, 
written, "for disturbing y € meeting" all the lecture time and pay costs & 
fees. (Mar. 1674) 

Every minister was troubled by those who slept in time of worship, 
and the congregation as well, in all probability, for sleeping leads to 
snoring, and when the snoring of sleepers was added to the whispering 
and laughing, shuffling of feet and walking about, the prayer and sermon 



must have been greatly disturbed. But our sympathy goes out to the 
sleepers. Cotton Mather entered in his diary on a Thanksgiving day in 
1705-6, "for the smile of Heaven on the arms of the allies against France 
in the year past:" 

"On this day, as on some other such, my public Addresses to Heaven 
were carried on with much Fervour and Rapture. For the best part of two 
hours together, my soul kept soaring and flaming toward Heaven in the 
wondrous praises of God." 

What an unutterable paean of thanksgiving went up from many in the 
"vast assembly" of which he often speaks, when his prayer was done! 
On Aug. 22 : 1706, he wrote "on the Lord's day, I was engaged in almost 
continual speech from two o'clock to nine, three hours of it in a vast as- 
sembly, two hours of it with the young men in the evening." 

Given an August Sunday, a man weary with his week's work, and 
three hours of praying and preaching on a stretch, a nap or a sound re- 
freshing sleep was both a necessary corollary and a welcome deliverance. 
But the sleeper was not allowed full enjoyment. Sometimes the minister 
rebuked him as Mr. Walton of Marblehead did, and the minister at Man- 
chester, and his more wakeful neighbor may have shaken the sleeper and 
roused him to shamefaced reception of his rebuke. In some congrega- 
tions, an official appointed to this task or one of the tithing men walked 
about to discharge his duty. 

A book entitled "Truth Held Forth and Maintained," published in 
Salem in 1695 by Thomas Maule, who had been whipped years before for 
saying Mr. Higginson preaches lies and a doctrine of devils, was sup- 
pressed by order of Court. Mr. Felt in his Annals of Salem quotes 
from it: 

"In the church of Salem the women in time of service have their faces 
covered with a vail, which practise did not many years continue, and when 
this practise was laid aside, they had for their more order in their church 
to keep people from sleeping, a man that wholly tended with a short 
clubbed stick, having at one end a knop, at the other a fox tail, with 
which he would strike the women's faces that were drowsy to sleep, and 
with the other end knock unruly dogs and men that were asleep." Invet- 
erate sleepers were haled to Court as well and fined. 

The long Psalm lined by the leader and sung by the Congregation fur- 
nished occasion for mishap and mirth. Judge Sewall, Precentor of the 


r .-i\ 


old South Church in Boston, makes frequent mention of these disturbing 
episodes. Under Dec. 28: 1705-6, he notes, in his Diary: "Mr. Willard 
spoke to me to set the tune. I intended Windsor and fell into High Dutch, 
and then essaying to set another tune, went into a key much too high. 
So I prayed Mr. White to set it, which he did well, Litch f. Tune. The 
Lord humble me and instruct me that I should be occasion of any Inter- 
ruption in the Worship of God." 

Under July 5: 1713, "At the close apoint i^ staff in the first part 40th 
Ps. I tryed to set Low Dutch tune and fail'd. Try'd again and fell into 
the tune of 119th Psalm, so Capt. Williams read the whole first part that 
he might have Psalm to the Tune." 

On Feb. 6: 1714-5- "This day I set Windsor tune and the people at the 
2 nd going over run into Oxford, do what I could. On Lord's Day, Feb. 
23, 1717-18, I set York tune and the Congregation went out of it into St. 
David's in the very 2 nd going over. They did the same three weeks 
before. This is the 2 nd sign. I think they began in the last line of the 
first going over. This seems to me an intimation and call for me to 
resign the Precentor's Place to a better Voice. I have through the divine 
Long-suffering and Favour done it lor 24 years and now God by his 
Providence seems to call me off. my Voice being enfeebled. . . . Mr. 
Prince said, Do it six years longer. I persisted and said that Mr. White 
or Mr. Franklin might do it very well. The Return of the Gallery where 
Mr. Franklin sat was a place very convenient for it." More summary 
warning that he had reached the end of his public musical career was 
at hand. On Lord's Day, March 5, 1720-1. 

"Just as I sat down in my seat one of my Fore-teeth in my under 
Jaw came out and I put it in my pocket. This old servant and daughter 
of musick leaving me, does thereby give me warning that I must shortly 
resign my head. The Lord help me do it cheerfully." 

The slanderous charge was made against Rev. Seth Fletcher of Wells 
that on the Sabbath, when he had set the Psalm, while the people were 
a-singing, he did take tobacco in the public meeting-house, and while he 
was preaching, the people in turn, took theirs. 

A singular penchant for libellous documents often roused indignation 
or mirth, and brought severe penalty upon the offender. Joseph Rowlandson, 
in later life the minister of Lancaster and victim of the historic Indian 
assault, which brought such incredible hardship to his wife, while a stu- 
dent at Harvard, affixed to the door of the Ipswich meeting house a 


lengthy de'iverance in poetry and prose, in which he paid his respect- to 
the authorities. He was severely disciplined and was obliged to read a 
humble apology, but the sensation that prevailed preoccupied the minds 
of every worshipper. 

A graceless young rhymester of Ipswich availed himself of the comple- 
tion of a gallery in 1671, in which the women had seats, as the occasion of 
a scandalous poem of a dozen verses, which was copied and handed about 
secretly with great gusto, we may believe, by those who take delight in 
such coarse and malicious horse-play. It was dedicated. 

"O ye brave undertakers & gallery makers," 
.and concluded his calumnious rant against the wares of the coopers, the 
.carpenters, the sailors, the tanner and all the rest with a refrain: 
"Set aside Mrs. Kindrick, goode Rust 

Mother Woodward & Ann. 

Pray find me such three 

againe if you can." 
The wonder is not that two aggrieved and indignant husbands in- 
stantly brought complaint against the two culprits involved, but that so 
little serious account of such gross libel was made in the Courts. 

• As we review the many disorders and disturbances that have been 
noted, and reflect that these were only the most violent, and that an innum- 
erable series of lesser moment was always happening; as we recall the 
common adjuncts of the weekly lecture, the exposure of criminals on high 
stools with the tale of their infamy written upon them, the reading of 
apologies for many misdeeds, the presence of murderers in chains prior to 
their execution, to be preached at by the minister, and then delivered over 
to the hang man to be executed in the presence of the whole community; 
the common sight, as the worshippers left the meeting house, of misdoers 
in limbo, sitting in the stocks, tied to the whipping post, or with rope 
round their neck and thrown over the gallows tree, we must believe that 
there was less sensitiveness, less sympathy, less annoyance at irreverence, 
lower standards of good conduct, amid that environment of stern legal- 
ism, or else that there was constant wounding of delicate sensibilities, and 
the perpetual recoil of tender hearts from the grossness of word and act 
with which they were always in painful contact. 



Colonel John Paterson's Minute Men's and militia Regiment, April 19. 1775. 

Colonel John Paterson's 12th Regiment, Provincial Army, May-June 1775. 

Colonel John Paterson's 26th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, 

July-December, 1775. 

By Frank A. Gardner, M D. 

(Continued from No. i, Vol. VIII) 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL SLOAN of Williamstown commanded an Inde- 
pendent Company of Minute Men which marched on the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775. May 5, 1775, he was engaged as Captain in Colonel 
John Paterson's Twelfth Regiment, Provincial Army, and he served under 
Colonel Paterson through the year. During 1776 he was Captain in 
Colonel John Paterson's Fifteenth Regiment, Continental Army. From 
October nth to 28th, 1781, he was Captain of a. Company in Colonel Asa 
Barns's Regiment f roservice under General Stark on the alarm at Sara- 
toga. "General Samuel Sloane died in Williamstown, April 12, 1813, in 
his 73rd year." 

CAPTAIN STRONG was mentioned as belonging to this regiment, 
June 13, 1775, but as it was full, agreed to join Colonel Henshaw's. 

CAPTAIN NATHAN W ATKINS of Partridgefield (Peru) was the 
son of Andrew Watkins, and was born in Hopkinton in 1739. As a resi- 
dent of "Hopkinton - he served as a private in Captain Benjamin Wood's 
Company from October 29 to December 13, 1755. From March 12th to 
November 17th, 1757, he was a centinel in Captain John Burke's Com- 
pany. From March 31st to May 23rd, 1758, he served in Captain Cox's 
Company, Colonel Ruggles's Regiment. On the Lexington alarm of April 
l 9t 1 77S> ne marched as Captain of a Company of Minute Men. May 5, 
1775, ne was engaged as Captain in Colonel John Paterson's Twelfth 
Regiment, Provincial Army, and served through the year under that 
commander. During 1776, he was Captain in Colonel Edmund Phinney's 
Eighteenth Regiment, Continental Army. Reported re-engaged Novem- 



7 6 


ber 13. 1776, in Colonel Brewer's Regiment. In the muster roll dated Fort 
George, December S, 1776, he was reported sick in the barracks. From 
January 1st to September 8th, 1778, he was a Captain in the 12th Regi- 
ment, Massachusetts Line, under Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Carleton and 
Ebenezer Sprout On the latter date he was reported a supernumerary 
officer and deranged, "on account of being absent a prisoner." The rec- 
ords show that he had been taken prisoner July 7. 1777, and October 24, 
1777, he was listed to be exchanged for Captain Bloomiield of Royal Ar- 
tillery. October 13 to 19, 1780, he served as a private in Captain William 
Fletcher's Company, Colonel Benamin Symonds's Berkshire County Regi- 

CAPTAIN THOMAS WILLIAMS of Stockbridge, was the eldest 
son of Doctor Thomas Williams of Deerfield, and brother of the founder 
of Williams College. He was born May 5, 1746. He studied law with 
Colonel Hopkins of Great Barrington, and commenced the practice ot 
law in Stockbridge with fair prospects of success ; but at the opening of 
the Revolutionary War he organized a company of Minute Men which 
marched as a part of Colonel Paterson's Regiment on the Lexington 
alarm, April 19, 1775. May 5, 1775, he was engaged to hold the same 
rank in Colonel Paterson's Twelfth Regiment, Provincial Army. He 
served under that command through the year. He was one of those who 
volunteered to follow Arnold up the Kennebec, and was in Colonel Enos's 
division. On reaching the Dead River the men of this Division of the 
invading forces Avere compelled to turn back on account of absolute lack 
of provisions. January 19, 1776, he was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel 
of Colonel Elisha Porter's Regiment of Hampshire and Berkshire men, 
organized to reinforce the army in Canada. He died on his way, at 
Skenesborough, now Whitehall, July 10, 1776, at the age of thirty. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM WYMAN of Roxbury, was probably the man 
of that name, who in 1760, at the age of twenty-two, residence Boston, 
enlisted for service in Canada. April 23, 1775, he was engaged as Captain 
in Colonel John Paterson's Regiment, and served through the year. 

held that rank in Captain William Thomas's Company, Colonel John 
Paterson's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 
19, 1775. He served under this command twenty-five days. May 3, 1776, 
he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Increase Hewins's Com- 


pany, in Colonel Benjamin Symonds's Second Berkshire County Regi- 
ment. December 16, 1776, he enlisted in Captain Amos Rathburn's Com- 
pany in the last named Regiment. May 1. 1777, his company was de- 
tached from the Berkshire County Militia to reinforce the Continental 

FIRST LIEUTENANT MOSES ASHLEY of Hartwood, was the son 
of Moses and Sarah (Taylor) Ashley, and was born in Westfield, June 16, 
1748. He graduated from Yale College in 1767, and with his father re- 
moved to Hartwood (now Washington) in the Spring of 1772. In the 
"Ashley Genealogy" it is stated that he was appointed an Ensign in the 
militia soon after his arrival in the last named place, and that he was 
sent to represent the town of Stockbridge, July 6, 1774. In response to 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as First Lieutenant 
in Captain Peter Porter's Company, Colonel John Paterson's Regiment. 
May 5, 1775, he enlisted in the same regiment and was commissioned 
Ensign, May 2~, 1775. During 1776 he was Captain in Colonel John Pater- 
son's 15th Regiment, Continental Army. January 1, 1777, he became 
Captain in Colonel Joseph Yose's 1st Regiment, Massachusetts Line. July 
28, 1780, he was commissioned Major in Colonel Major Ruftis Putnam's 
5th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. January 1, 1783, he was transferred 
to. Colonel Benjamin Tupper's 6th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and 
served to June 12, 1783. He died in Lee, Massachusetts, August 25, 1791. 
He was a member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN BACON of Needham was a Sergeant 
in Captain Aaron Smith's Company, Colonel William Heath's Regiment, 
which marched on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, serving five days. 
April 24, 1775, he enlisted as First Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Kilton's 
Company, Colonel John Paterson's 12th Regiment. Provincial Army, and 
served through the year. 

May 2J, 1775, Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Morse's Company, Colonel 
John Paterson's Regiment. 

son of Elisha and Miriam (Ely) Chapin. He is mentioned as holding this 
rank in Captain William Wyman's Company, Colonel John Paterson's 
12th Regiment, Provincial Army, May 2"j, 1775, at which time his com- 


mission was ordered to be delivered. He served through the year under 
the same Colonel. During 1776 he was First Lieutenant in Colonel John 
Paterson's 15th Regiment, Continental Army. January 1, 1777, he be- 
came Ensign in Colonel William Shepherd's 4th Regiment, Massachusetts 
Line, holding that rank ten months, when he was promoted Lieutenant. 
In 1779 his name appears as First Lieutenant in Captain Simon Learned *s 
Company, Colonel Shepherd's Regiment. May 20, 1779, he was Lieuten- 
ant in Colonel Henry Jackson's Regiment. He was a member of Massa- 
chusetts Society of the Cincinnati. 

that rank in Captain Nathan Watkins's Company of Minute Men, which 
marched from Gageborough and F'artridgefield, on the Lexington Alarm, 
April 19, 1775. May 5, 1775, he was engaged to serve under the same 
Captain in Colonel John Paterson's 12th Regiment, Provincial Army, and 
served until his discharge, September 9, 1775. May 3, 1776, he was com- 
missioned Captain in Colonel Benjamin Symonds's Second Berkshire 
County Regiment. He served as Captain in the same Regiment on an 
alarm in July and August, 1777, an d again in April, 1778, and also in 
October, 1780. 

t . FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN CUMPSTON of Saco (also given Pep- 
perellborough) was in Theodore Bliss's Company, having enlisted May 
3, 1775. He served through the year, and went with the contingent to 

tain Asa Barnes's Company, Colonel John Paterson's Regiment, on the 
Lexington alarm, .April 19, 1775. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT DAVID PIXLEY of Stockbridge, was prob- 
ably the son of David Pixley. His name appears in the above rank in 
the list of Captain William Goodrich's Company, Colonel John Paterson's 
Regiment on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. ^ Ia y 5> I 775» ne was 
engaged to serve under the same officer in Colonel John Paterson's 
12th Regiment, Provincial Army, and probably served through the year. 
In 1777 he was Captain of the Stockbridge Company in Colonel John 
Brown's 3d Berkshire County Regiment, serving twenty-seven days with 
the Army of the Northern Department. 


the son of Hezekiah and Zerviah (Hosmer) Sabin, and was baptized in 
Pomfret, Connecticut, January 23, 1736. May 5, 1775, he was engaged 
as First Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Sloan's Company, Colonel John 
Paterson's 12th Regiment, Provincial Army. He probably served through 
the year. 

Lieutenant in Captain David Rossiter's Company of minute men, Colonel 
John Paterson's Regiment, which marched in response to the Lexington 
Alarm of April 19, 1775. Permission was granted him in May, 1775, to 
return home. 

in Captain John Burke's Company in March and April, 1756. From April 
14th to January 3, 1758, as a resident of Montague, -he was a private in 
Colonel William Williams's Regiment. In the following year from April 
6th to November 30th he was a private in Captain John Clapp's Company 
on an expedition to Crown Point. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 
1775, ne marched as First. Lieutenant in Captain Charles Dibble's Com- 
pany, Colonel John Paterson's Regiment. May 5, 1775, he was engaged 
to serve in that rank under the same Captain and served throughout the 
year. July 5, 1776 he became Captain in Colonel Seth Warner's Addi- 
tional Continental Regiment, and was taken prisoner. July 15, 1779. A 
petition of his wife, Rachael Smith, for exchange, dated July, 1782, is on 
record in the Archives. He was placed on the retired list January 1, 1781. 
He was a member of the Massachusetts Society of the Cincinnati. 

born in Litchfield, Connecticut, May 18, 1742, was the son of James and 
Abigail (Pack) Stoddard. He settled in Stockbridge before the Revolu- 
tion, and on the Lexington alarm. April 19, 1775, marched as Second 
Lieutenant in Captain Thomas, Williams's Company of Minute Men. 
Colonel John Paterson's Regiment. May 5, 1775, he was engaged to 
serve under the same Captain in Colonel John Paterson's 12th Regiment. 
Provincial Army, and his name appears as Lieutenant of said Company 
in the list dated May 27, 1775. He served through the year. January 1, 
1777, he became Captain in Colonel Joseph Vose's 1st Regiment, Massa- 
chusetts Line, and served until his resignation, November 2, 1780. In the 


"History of the Stoddard Family," it is stated that he became a General 
of Militia after the Revolution.. In 1778 he settled in the site of the 
present town of Union, N. Y., later removing to Lisle, Broome County. 
He died there October 3, 1824, aged 82 years, 4 months, 4 days. 

rank in Captain David Noble's Company of Minute Men and Militia, 
Colonel John Paterson's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington 
alarm, April 19, 1775. April 29, 1775. he was engaged to serve under the 
same officers in the 12th Regiment, Provincial Army, and served under 
them through the year. He was taken prisoner in Canada in 1776, and 
his name appears in an exchange list dated June 28, 1777. October 29, 
1779, it w r as ordered that clothing be given him, being at the time a pris- 
oner under parole. By special resolve his wages were made up to March 
6, 1781 ; "On account of his having been a prisoner during a portion of 
the time." 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN WYMAN. An officer of this name 
appears as one of the recruiting officers of this regiment, in a document 
under date of July 15, 1775, but no further reference to him can be found. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT SILAS CHILDS of Becker, held that rank- 
in Captain Peter Porter's Company of Minute Men, Colonel Paterson's 
Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. 
May 5, 1775, he enlisted as Sergeant in Captain Thomas Williams's Com- 
pany, Colonel John Paterson's Regiment, and served through the year. 
He may have been the Silas "Chile's" who was a private in Lieutenant 
Thomas Gould's Company, Colonel Benjamin Symond's Second Berk- 
shire County Regiment in July. 1777. 

that rank in Captain Theodore Blisss Company, Colonel John Paterson's 
12th Regiment, Provincial Army, and served through the year. During 
1776 he was First Lieutenant in Colonel John Paterson's 15th Regiment, 
Continental Army. January I, 1777, he became Adjutant in Colonel John 
Greaton's 3rd Regiment, Massachusetts Line. November 11, 1777, he 
was commissioned Captain in the same Regiment. He resigned March 
21, 1780. 



Sergeant in Captain Nathan Watkins's Company of Minute Men, which 
marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. May 5, 1775, he en- 
listed under the same Captain in Colonel John Paterson's 12th Regiment. 
Provincial Army. In a list dated November 1, 1775, his name appears as 
Second Lieutenant in this Regiment, and the receipt for bounty coat 
was dated November 13, 1775. January I, 1776, he became Second Lieu- 
tenant in Colonel Edward Phinney's 18th Regiment, Continental Army. 
He died April 15, 1776. 

marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19. 1775, as Ensign in Captain 
Samuel Sloan's Company of Minute Men. May 5, 1775, he w r as engaged 
to serve in the same rank under that Captain in Colonel John Paterson's 
12th Regiment, Provincial Army. In a company return, dated probably 
October, 1775, he was called Second Lieutenant of the same compar- 
and regiment. He probably served through the year. July 9, 1777, he 
was engaged as Captain in Colonel Benjamin Symonds's Second Berk- 
shire County Regiment. He also served in the same rank in that regi- 
ment on alarm calls in August and September, 1777. His name appears 
in the list of officers in Colonel Symonds's 7th Essex County (probably 
mistake in the records) Regiment, his commission as Captain bearing 
date' of May 3, 1778. July 1, 1778, he was engaged as Captain of Colonel 
Gerrish's Regiment of Guards, and he served until January 3, 1779. 

cut, was the son of John and Mary (St. John) Pennoyer of the above' 
named town. He was born there February 11, 1754. His name appears 
in the above rank in Captain John McKinstry's Company, Colonel John 
Paterson's 26th Regiment, Army of the United Colonies, in a return dated 
probably October, 1775, an d also in a recommendation proclamation dated 
November 1, 1775. January 1, 1776, he became Second Lieutenant in 
Colonel John Paterson's 15th Regiment, Continental Army. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT AMOS PORTER of Lenox held that rank- 
in Captain Charles Dibble's Company of Minute Men, Colonel John Pater- 
son's Regiment, which marched in response to the Lexington alarm. April 
x 9» 1775. ^ a y 5> 1775, he was engaged to serve in Colonel John Pater- 
son's 12th Regiment, Provincial Army, and he served through the year 
under that officer. 


have been the man of that name, who, as a resident of Greenwich, at the 
age of eighteen, enlisted, July 6, 1759, in Colonel Israel Williams's Regi- 
ment, having had record of service in an expedition to Canada the pre- 
vious year. He was a private in Captain Joseph Hooker's Company of 
Minute Men, Colonel Ruggles Woodbridge's Regiment, which marched on 
the Lexington Alarm, April 19, 1775. October 24th he enlisted as Second 
Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Kelton's Company, Colonel John Paterson's 
12th Regiment, Provincial Army, and he served through the year, being 
called Ensign in some lists, and Second Lieutenant in others. April 1, 
1776, he was commissioned Second Lieutenant in Captain Isaac Powers's 
Company, Colonel Elisha Porter's Hampshire and Berkshire County Regi- 
ment. In August, 1776, he was in Colonel B. R. Woodbridge's Militia 

the son of Richard and Deborah (Rider) Sanger. He was born in Sher- 
born February 17, 1 750-1. He was a private in Captain Benamin Bul- 
lard's Company of Minute Men, Colonel Abijah Pierce's Regiment, which 
marched on the Lexington alarm April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775, he en- 
listed as Second Lieutenant in Captain Joseph Morse's Company, Colonel 
John 'Paterson's 12th Regiment, Provincial Army. He continued to serve 
under those officers through the year. In 1776, he held the same rank 
in Colonel William Prescott's 7th Regiment, Continental Army, and his 
later military record will be found in the history of Colonel William 
Phescott's Regiment. (See Massachusetts Magazine, Vol. 1, Page 256). 
Judge Jedediah Sanger died in 1820. 

(Peru), held that rank in Captain Nathan Watkins Company of Minute 
Men, which marched on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775- May 5, 
1778, he was engaged to serve in that rank under the same Captain in 
Colonel John Paterson's 12th Regiment, Provincial Army, and served 
through the year. May 3, 1776 his commission as Captain in Colonel Ben- 
jamin Symonds's Second Berkshire County Regiment was ordered in 
'Council. In a muster roll, dated Ticonderoga, February 25, 1777, his 
name appears as Captain of the 7th Company in Colonel Benjamin Sy- 
monds's detachment of Berkshire County Militia. A note stating that he 
entered service December 16, 1776, is also found in the archives. 


gaged April 23, 1775, as Ensign in Captain William Wyman's Company, 
Colonel John Paterson's 12th Regiment, Provincial Army. He served 
through the year under these officers, and in a Company return, dated 
October, 1775, he is called Second Lieutenant. During 1776 he was First 
Lieutenant in Colonel John Paterson's 15th Regiment, Continental Army. 

as Sergeant in Captain Israel Williams's Regiment in 1757-8. He was 
Second Lieutenant in Captain David Noble's Company of Minute Men 
and Militia, Colonel John Paterson's Regiment, which marched in response 
to the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. We was engaged to serve in 
the same rank on April 29, 1775, and served through the year. He be- 
came a prominent citizen of Pittsfield, and was Deacon of the [Methodist 
church. He served as Moderator at the Town Meeting, and held other 
offices of trust. 

ENSIGN FRANCIS CABOT was credited with that rank in Captain 
Theodore Bliss's Company, Colonel John Paterson's Regiment in a list 
preserved in the Massachusetts Archives 127, Page 201. He may have 
been the man of that name who served as a private in Captain William 
Clark's Company, Colonel Benamjin Symond's 2nd Berkshire County 
Regiment; service three days, marching from Gageborough to Benington 
August 17, 1777, by order of General Stark on an alarm. 

ENSIGN CALEB SMITH of Lanesboro, held that rank in Captain 
Asa Barnes's Company, Colonel John Paterson's Regiment on the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 20. 1775, he was engaged as Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Asa Barnes's Company, Colonel Benjamin Ruggles 
Woodbridge's 22nd Regiment, Provincial Army, and he served through 
the year under that officer. His full biographical sketch has been given 
in the Massachusetts Magazine, Volume 4, Page 89. 

ENSIGN SAMUEL WILCOX of Partridgefield (Peru) marched on 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1777, as Sergeant in Captain Nathan 
Watkins's Company of Minute Men. May 27, 1775, the Provincial Con- 
gress ordered that his commission be delivered as Ensign in Captain Na- 
than Watkins's Company, Colonel John Paterson's 12th Regiment, Pro- 
vincial Army. 



By Francis McGee Thompson. 

The first settlement made by the English upon, the "Long" river of the 
Indians, the "Fresh" river of the Dutch, now called the Connecticut, was 
made by William Holmes of Plymouth, who sailed into its mouth, in Oc- 
tober, 1633, an d unloaded from his vessel, at a point just below the mouth 
of Windsor river, the already prepared frame of his house. When he re- 
turned to Plymouth he took with him some of the sachems of that re- 
gion, whom the Peqnots had driven out. The Dutch from Manhattan 
had traded on the "Long river," with the natives since 1614, and, intending 
to forestall the English, they had early in 1633 erected a small fort where 
Hartford now stands, which they named "Good Hope." The Dutch trained 
the two small guns in their fort on Holmes's ship, and ordered him to 
stop, but he told them that he had commission from the Governor of Ply- 
mouth to go up the river, "and if they did shoote, they must obey their 
order and proceede." So he 'proceeded' to his destination. Within two 
years, churches at Dorchester, Watertown and New Town, with their 
pastors, had removed bodily to the Connecticut, and settled at Windsor, 
Weathersfield and Hartford. Among the earliest to remove from Dorches-. 
ter to Windsor, was Jonathan Gillett. or as more frequently spelled in 
early times, Gillit. He subsequently removed to Simsbury, and raised a 
family of ten children. 

His third son, Joseph, (baptized July 25, 164 1,) was one of the early 
settlers of Deerfield, later the frontier town of the Connecticut valley, and 
was killed by King Philip's Indians at the massacre of Lolhrop and his 
men at Bloody Brook, Sept. 18, 1875. Samuel, younger brother of Joseph, 
was slain on the retreat of Capt. Wm. Turner after the fig'rt at Turners 
Falls, May 19, 1676. The next year the widow of Samuel married Stephen 
Jennings of Hatfield, and that same year she with two of her children, 
were taken prisoners to Canada. While a prisoner, she became the mother 
of a babe whom she named Captivity Jennings. These prisoners were 



rescued in 1678. Joseph Gillett was the father of seven children, and his 
son John, born June 10, 1671, was the hero of this story. 

When, in 1651, the apostle Eliot made selection of the place where he 
proposed to build his town for the gathering in of his "praying- Indians/ 
he, and the General Court, supposed that the 2000 acres granted for that 
purpose, lay within the boundaries of Xatick; but when it proved to be 
within the lines of Dedham, the proprietors of that town made the dis- 
covery, the basis of a claim upon the General Court for a grant in remu- 
neration, and for twelve years they badgered the General Court for re- 
dress. Wearied at last, the legislature in 1663 appointed a committee who 
reported ; "For a final issue of the case between Dedham and Natick, the 
Court judgeth meete to graunte Dedham eight thousand acres of land in 
any convenient place or places, not exceeding two, where it can be found 
free from former graunts ; provided Dedham accepts this offer." 

Dedham accepted the offer, and in order to make the most of their 
bargain, sent out spies, as Moses sent men to spy out Jaazer. to find the 
best location. The committee pitched upon the Pocumtuck (Deerfield) 
valley, and in 1665 the grant was laid out, including within its lines the 
rich bottom lands on both sides of the winding Pocumtuck. A sizeable 
stream rises in southeastern Vermont and flowing southerly enters the 
Pocumtuck or Deerfield a mile north of the old village. This was called 
by the Indians, "Picomegan," and by the English, Green river. On its 
banks lie the rich acres known as Greenfield meadows, and near by is the 
beautiful village of Greenfield. 

Here, Sept. 16, 1696, John Gillett aged 25, and John Smead 23 years 
old, of Deerfield, were engaged in "hunting bees." Undoubtedly they were 
soldiers sent out on a scout, and the "tracking Bees," was merely an in- 
cident of the occasion. Judd, in his history of Hadley says, "The early seN 
tiers of Connecticut transported bees from the towns about Boston, and 
there were hives or skeps of bees at Northampton and Hadley in early 

days." "Swarms of bees sometimes flew into the woods, and the 

racket made by beating pans and kettles did not check them. Bees have 
inhabited hollow trees in the woods of Hadley and other forests from time 
immemorial, and many persons have hunted for bee trees. Those found 
were marked, and afterwards cut down and the honev taken out." Rev. 


Mr. Judd of Southampton made this entry in his diary, Oct. 20, 1746, — 
"went to hunt bees." 

There were many methods of hunting bees in practice. I have seen an 
ancient bee hunting box," arranged with a sliding cover, made in two sec- 
tions, in one of which was placed a little honey, and the other was for the 
detention of a few bees poked into it from the flowers. When the bee 
hunter discovered numerous bees, at a long distance from any known colo- 
nies, he carefully secured a few in his cage, and when they had in a meas- 
ure recovered from their fright, -he would permit a bee to feast upon the 
honey, and when liberated the bee would rise in the air, and after a mo- 
ment take a direct course for his home station. As bee after bee was lib- 
erated, if they all took the same course, the hunter was assured that they 
were all from the same colony. The course of flight was fixed by the bee 
hunter by natural objects, and the place of observation was marked so as 
to be easily found, and then the bee hunter would move on at a right 
angle to the course of flight and repeat the process with a new collection of 
bees. When the new course of flight had been fixed, then one of the bee 
hunters would start from each station, and marching in the line fixed by 
the flight of bees, when they came together they were pretty sure to find 
a big hovlow tree, and after critical examination discover some knot-hole 
or crack, through which the colony made ingress and egress. The tree 
being marked with the bee hunter's initials, a day was fixed for the cutting 
of the tree, the smoking and smothering of the bees, and the securing of 
the honey; in which sweet labor the lucky finder enjoyed the company 
of many friends. 

While busily engaged in "tracking'' his bees, Gillett, before he was 
aware of their presence, was nearly surrounded by nineteen French Mo- 
hawk Indians. Smead, being more distant, took flight and made his es- 
cape. It has always been thought by those best capable of judging, that 
some of this party of Indians were well acquainted with the people at 
Deerfield, and it is recorded that Capt. Partridge wrote about this time, 
"the Deerfield people are fearful concerning the pretended friendly Indians 
proving enemies, being worse than open enemies." Gillett may have rec- 
ognized some iriendly" in the party, and perhaps made no effort to es- 




cape; at all events he was made a prisoner, and the party fearing that 
Smead would alarm the settlers at Deerfield. four or five miles away, they 
left three men to guard him while the other sixteen men pushed on to make 
a raid upon the settlement. 

It was "lecture day" at Deerfield, and nearly all the adult population 
were gathered in the little new meeting house to hear Rev. John Williams, 
v\-ho had for ten years been the pastor of this frontier flock in the wilder- 
ness. The Indians, entering the settlement at the north end of the village 
street, meeting no resistance, came to the house of Air. Daniel Belding, 
whom they had seen driving into his yard, a cart loaded with corn, from 
the meadow. Mr. Belding, being somewhat belated, left his oxen in the 
yard, and hastened into the house to make ready to attend the lecture. 

His house stood where now is located the residence of Hon. George 
Sheldon, the venerated historian of the town, and was within gun shot of 
the north gate of the palisade which surrounded the meeting house, and 
other houses of the settlers. Immediately the Indians rushed in and took 
Mr. Belding, his son Nathaniel, (22) his daughter Esther, (13) prisoners, 
and killed Airs. Belding, and their sons Daniel, (16) John, (3) and their 
daughter Thankful, (10) months. Samuel, their boy aged nine years, 
was .on the load of corn, and when an Indian took him from the cart, "he 
kickd and scratchd and bit" the savage, who became vexed and set him 
down, and struck his hatchet into his head, and twitched twice or thrice 
to pull it out, and left him for dead." The boy soon recovered his senses 
and saw. the savages running from the place. He started for the fort, but 
was so weak that when he came to the little bridge over the swamp, he fell 
off, but was rescued and taken to the ministers house. For a long time 
his life was dispaired of. but he recovered and lived until 1750. Abigail 
Belding (6) while running for the fort was wounded in the arm, (as was 
thought by a bullet fired from the fort;) but both sides were firing, and 
Zebediah Williams was wounded as he opened the palisade gate to let in 
the frightened settlers. Sarah, another daughter, (14) hid herself among 
some tobacco hanging in a chamber, and thus escaped. 

One of the Indians being wounded "in the fleshy part of the thigh," 
and the people having become thoroughly alarmed, the Indians withdrew, 


but were followed into the meadows "by some Brisk young men," and 
many shots were exchanged "without damage on either side." The Indians 
killed some cattle which were feeding in the meadow, but the boy who had 
them in charge, was quick witted enough to hide himself and escape cap- 
ture. John Smead came safely into town soon after the enemy had retired 
with their prisoners. 

After picking up their companions and Gillett, at Green river, the In- 
dians camped the first night near Xorthfield street, in a round hole near 
Connecticut river. They took the route to Canada by the way of Otter 
river, and on their journey came upon a trail which, they announced, was 
made by Albany Indians on their way to Canada, "where they were wont 
to go a-scalping." 

The Mohawk war party sent out scouts who discovered the "smoak" 
of the hostile Albany party, and reporting, the Indians immediately made 
preparations to attack their enemies. They threw off their packs, and 
smeared themselves with paint, tied their English prisoners to trees, and 
left two of their party as guards. Dividing into two companies, they made 
their attack, killing two, and two escaped. One of the attacking party 
was wounded in y e fleshy part of the thigh, as one had been before at 
DTd." One of the prisoners taken in the skirmish, was a Scatacook, and 
one was a young Albany Mohawk. When the Indians and their captives 
were well on their journey, Mr. Belding asked the Scatacook what he 
thought the enemy would do with them. He told them that they would 
not kill the English prisoners, but would give some of them to the French.' 
and keep some of them for slaves. He said that they would probably burn 
him, at least he expected that would be his fate. When they reached the 
lake, that night, it was raining very hard, and the Indians built no fire. 
Some of the Indians took the Scatacook under a canoe, and in some man- 
ner he worked himself free from his bonds and escaped. They made great 
search for the missing prisoner, but were forced to march without him. 
The Albany Mohawk, being of the same nation as the captors, was not in 
danger of being burned, the Canada Indians being Mohawks, but living 
in Canada, that they might enjoy the Catholic religion. 

When the party reached the Oso fort, the captive men were forced to 

- : 5%f%-V-/ 


run the gauntlet. Mr. Belding. being very nimble, escaped without much 
injury; but the others suffered much by being beaten with clubs and fire- 
brands. It was the 9th of October, when they reached Canada, and the 
prophecy of the Scatacook proved true. Mr. Belding and his daughter 
were kept by the Indians, John Gillett and Nathaniel Belding were given 
to the French. The French placed Gillett as a servant with the Nuns, on 
their farm, and Nathaniel worked for the Holy Sisters. In July, Mr. 
Belding was sold to the Jesuits, and his duties were to cut wood, tend fires, 
and work in the garden at the Seminary. They thought themselves well 
used. Early in the following winter, Col. Abraham Schuyler arrived from 
Albany, and brought with him a copy of the articles of peace between Eng- 
land and France, and took home with him to Albany, some Dutch captives. 
The following April, Col. Schuyler returned with his brother Col. Peter 
Schuyler, the Dutch Dominie at Albany, and others, and after negotiation, 
the governor of New France gave liberty to all captives, Dutch or Eng- 
lish, to return home, and ordered that all captives under sixteen years of 
age might be compelled to return, while those above that age might be at 
liberty to go or stay. On June 8th, the Schuyler party, having gathered 
up all the captives they could, both Dutch and English, started for Albany 
by way of Lake Champlain. In this party were Mr. Belding and his chil- 
dren, Martin Smith, and about twenty other English. They reached Al- 
bany about fifteen days after leaving Canada, and were very kindly enter- 
tained by the Dutch. Mr. Belding and his children went down the river 
to New York, thence sailed to Stamford, Conn., and from there went to 
Nonvalk, to meet his brother, who had furnished him means for payment 
of his large expenses. He reached his home at Deerfield, and in 1699 
married for his second wife, Hepzibah. widow of Lt. Thomas Wells. She 
was taken prisoner at the destruction of Deerfield, Feb. 29, 1704, and killed 
on the march to Canada. 

Our bee hunter, John Gillett reached Deerfield a short time previous 
to the return of the Belding family, by the round about way of France and 
England. Upon Gillett's arrival home, and the story of his hardships be- 
coming known, the representative to the General Court from Hatfield, 
presented the following petition for his relief. 

"Whereas John Gillett who hath been a very active and Willing Sould 1 " 
within the County of Hampshire & Being On the 16th day of Sep tr 1696 
out upon Service & togeather w th some others was that day taken by 
the enemy & suffering hardship was carried to Cannadie Captive & there 
Remayn d till Sep tr Last & then Sent from thence Prison 1 * into old ffrance, 
& thence (by the late Articles of Peace) he sd. Gilit together with other 


Captives was Released & carried into England ; Since his Arrival there 
hath Lived & obtained pay for his Passage by Charitie of Some English 
March ts there & now being Arrived here destitute of Money or Cloaths 
for his present Reliefe Humbly propose it to y e Honor ble Co r te to allow 
him something w 1 this Co r te judge meet for his p r sent Reliefe. 

Province Laws — Chap. 17, 1698. 

"Resolved there be allowed and paid out of the public treasury the sum 
of six pounds to John Gillett, for his present relief, having been imployed 
as a souldier in his majesties service within the province, and taken pris- 
oner by the enemy and carried into Canada, and from thence to old France, 
and now returned heme. Approved June 17, 1698. 

John Smead, who escaped capture while "tracking bees," was living at 
Deerfield, when the hamlet was sacked by the French and Indians, Feb. 29. 
1703-4, with his wife and child, and all escaped capture or death. Mr. 
Smead joined in the attempt made that day to rescue the captives, called 
the "Meadow fight" and received a bullet in his thigh which he carried 
to his grave in 1720. His son, John, made application to the General Court 
for some recognition of his father's service and suffering, and was granted 
two hundred acres of land. To the application the following certificate 
was attached. "I was in the Deerfield Meadow fight & see the said Smead 
kill an Indian. Some of the soldiers took off the Indian's scalp & secured 
it & I see the said John Smead shoot another Indian which he gave a 
mortal wound & the Indian died in a short time at the place where he 
received the wound or very near the place. Ebenezer Warner." 

This son, John, was a soldier at Fort Massachusetts when it was cap- 
tured by the French and Indians, Aug. 20, 1746, and himself, wife, and 
five children were among the captives taken to Canada. On the second 
day's march toward Canada, the wife became the mother of a girl baby, 
whom they named "Captivity" and it was baptized by Rev. John Norton, 
the English chaplain, also a prisoner. A litter was made of poles support- 
ing a bear-skin, and the mother and child were carefully carried by the 
Indians to the end of their journey. Mrs. Smead died the following March, 
and Mr. Smead and the three youngest children were redeemed and 
reached Boston in August, 1747, but Mr. Smead was killed by Indians at 
a place on the Connecticut near the mouth of Miller's river, just three 
weeks after his return from captivity. 





Karl F. Geiser, Professor of Political Science in Oberlin College. 

From the organization of Congress in 1789 down to the Civil War, the 
debates of that body show r a divided sentiment toward the pioneer of the 
West. John Randolph pronounced the western country a land "where 
any man may get beastly drunk for three pence sterling." He ridiculed 
the pioneers as ''men in hunting shirts, with deer-skin leggings and moc- 
casins on their feet — men with rifles on their shoulders and long knives 
in their belts, seeking in the forests to lay in their next Winter's supply 
of bear meat." This rebuke, delivered in Congress in 1824, was not al- 
lowed to pass unchallenged, however, for a few days later Robert P. 
Letcher of Kentucky, on the floor of the House, replied: "Sir, with the 
utmost frankness, I admit their external appearance is not the most 
fashionable and elegant kind ; they are not decorated in all the style, the 
gaiety and the taste of a dandy of the first water. Their means are too 
limited and their discretion is too great, I trust, for the indulgence of such 
foppery and extravagance — Sir, these are the very citizens of whom the 
nation ought to be proud. They constitute the bone, and sinew, and 
strength, of your Government. In the hour of peril and danger they 
are always ready to rally around the standard of their country. Call upon 
them to maintain the honor of the nation, to defend her rights, they set up 
no Constitutional scruples, in answer to your call about crossing boundary 
lines I" 1 

These two opinions are suggestive, if not typical, of the attitude of 
members of Congress toward the pioneers of the West and towards the 
problem of the disposal of the public lands from the time of the organiza- 
tion of the North-West Territory until the establishment by Congress of 
a definite policy not only in regard to public lands and pio neers in the 

1 As quoted by Kenneth W. Colgrove in Iowa Journal of History and Politics. Vol. 
VIII. No. 1, pp. 3-5. 





West, but also in regard to the policy of frontier protection and internal 
improvements — if indeed, it may be said that Congress ever established a 
definite policy. Whatever may be the facts concerning this point, opin- 
ions, in and out of Congress, were divided upon the question of the effect 
and value of the Western settlements upon the national life and govern- 
ment during the period mentioned. The recorded opinions of that time 
have become interesting annals of our history from which we may now 
know the true prophets of that generation ; for later history has placed 
its sober and final verdict decidedly in favor of the worth and value of the 
pioneer in the West to American political and social institutions. So uni- 
versally indeed is this now conceded that the mere mention of it may 
seem a superogatory statement ; and yet it is well to be reminded that 
competent minds were not always of the same opinion upon this now 
patent fact and that a study of western civilization in its relation to the 
East — which in this case is New England — is in its broadest sense a study 
of relations and adjustments preparatory to a higher development of na- 
tional life and that the resultant principles are applicable with equal force 
to modern conditions. The pioneer of reform is but the western pioneer 
in modern life. 

•American political institutions have usually developed either from 
forces within the old institution and growing out of it, or from independ- 
ent forces operating from without and modifying its development. The 
social and political institutions of Western Reserve developed from a com- 
bination of these two conditions. Here we have New England Puritanism 
transferring or projecting itself into a new environment, preserving in a 
large measure — at least in the first half century — its New England quali- 
ties, yet hampered by no customs or traditions in its further development, 
and acted upon by forces springing from a new soil and new environments. 
Western Reserve is the last home of colonized Puritanism, for it was in a 
great degree — especially on its social and religious side — a New England 
Colony. W T hile individuals and families have carried Puritanism beyond 
the Mississippi, even to the Pacific slope, in no other place west does its 
united organizing quality appear to such an extent, in no other place has 
its social and religious flavor permeated and dominated the thought and 
life of so large a community. We can best understand to what an extent 


New England was a factor in the life and thought, and in the development 
of the social, religious and political institutions upon the Western Re- 
serve by turning to its history, for New England gave it its birth and her 
influence constitutes the main thread in the tissue of its life. 

When Connecticut ceded her western territory to the general govern- 
ment, September 14, 1786, she reserved a tract lying along the south 
shore of Lake Erie, north of the 41st parallel and extending one hundred 
and twenty miles west from the western boundary of Pennsylvania. In 
New England this tract was generally called "New Connecticut," while 
in the west it was usually called "the Western Reserve of Connecticut." 
It was about the size of old Connecticut and has since been organized into 
twelve counties. 1 Of this tract the Connecticut legislature granted, 
September 5, 1792, to those of her citizens who had suffered from fire and 
other spoliation by British troops during the Revolutionary war, a halt 
million acres from the west end of the Reserve called "The Fire Lands." 2 
Three years later, September 5, 1795, tne State executed a deed to John 
Caldwell, Jonathan Brace and John Morgan, trustees of the Connecticut 
Land Company, for 3,000,000 acres which included all that remained to the 
state and comprehended practically all of the Reserve except the Fire 
Lands. The state had issued to this company a quit claim deed conveying 
only such title as it possessed and leaving to the purchasers the duty of 
extinguishing the Indian titles to the land. Early in 1796 a party of fifty- 
two citizens of Connecticut, headed by Moses Cleveland, set out for the 
Reserve, reaching Buffalo on the 17th of June, where they met the princi- 
pal chiefs of the Six Nations, completed a contract for the purchase of 
the Indian rights to the Reserve "for five hundred pounds of New York 
Currency to be paid in goods to the Western Indians, and two beef cattle 
and 100 gallons of whiskey to the Eastern Indians, besides gifts and pro- 
visions to them all." They arrived at the confines of New Connecticut, 
July 4, 1796, and proceeded to Conneaut where they pitched their tents, 
erected a cabin, began the surveys to their newly acquired lands, and 
opened the Reserve to settlers. 

But the political status of the early settlers was for a time undecided 

1 The Western Reserve Counties are: Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Erie. Geauga, Huron, 
Lake, Lorain, Mahoning. Medina, Portage. Summit and Trumbull. Erie and Huron 
counties constitute the "Fire Lands." 

2 The number of citizens receiving lands from these grants was 1,870 



since Connecticut did not assume civil jurisdiction over the land she had 
sold. Governor St. Clair had organized Washington County in 1788 in 
the eastern part of the territory and this included a part of the Reserve, but 
the settlers did not feel that the government thus established was suited 
to their needs and most of them doubted its legality. Eight counties had 
been erected in the Northwest territory by 1800 but none of them were in 
the Reserve. No magistrate had been appointed for that portion of the 
country and no civil process was established: there was no mode of mak- 
ing legal conveyances, no authority to enforce contracts. 1 But in 1800 
Connecticut transferred to the national government all claims to civil jur- 
isdiction and Congress assumed political control. In pursuance of this 
authority Governor St. Clair established by proclamation Trumbull County 
which included the entire area of the Reserve, "The Fire Lands' 5 and the 
adjacent islands. The first election was held at Warren, its county seat, 
on the second Tuesday of October, 1800. Forty-two votes were cast and 
Edward Paine, of Connecticut birth and founder of Painesville, received 
thirty-eight votes and was thus elected as the first representative to the 
territorial legislature. By a treaty between the land company and the 
Indians all lands in the Reserve west of the Cuyahoga river belonging 
to the Indians were ceded to the Company, thus giving them a full title 
to their complete purchase. Counties were now organized. Geauga county 
was organized in 1805 ; Portage in 1807, Cuyahoga in 1810, and Ashtabula 
in 1812. Many of the Indians remained on the Reserve till the breaking 
out of the war of 1812, when a portion of them joined with their Canadian 
brethren in taking up arms against the United States. At the close of the 
war occasional bands wandered back to their old hunting grounds on the 
Cuyahoga and Mahoning rivers, but the settlers soon made them under- 
stand that they were unwelcome visitors after the part they had taken 
against them in the war, and they soon disappeared. Thus, in 181 2 the 
Reserve was practically cleared of the Indians and the first step in the 
conquest of the Western Reserve was complete. 

It is thus to be noted that whatever beginnings existed on the Reserve 
up to 1800 were of purely New England origin. The original surveys 
were made by New Englanders ; the Company owning the entire Reserve 

1 Western Historical Society Tracts. Vol. 1, No. 30. 


was a Connecticut company and, since there was no general civil author- 
ity over the tract between 1795 and 1800, the institutions established, 
originated entirely from voluntary action of the local inhabitants, prac- 
tically all of whom were Xew Englanders. In 1798 there were fifteen fami- 
nes on the Reserve. In 1800 the entire population on the Reserve was 
1,302 and at the close of the year these were groupd into thirty-two settle- 
ments, nearly all being from Connecticut: though Massachusetts, Vermont, 
and other New England states now also began to contribute their quota; 
and, although as yet no organized government was established, "the pion- 
eers were a people who had been trained in the principles and practices 
of civil order and these were transferred to their new homes.*' 1 There 
was but little lawlessness which so often characterizes the people of a 
new country. After 1800 the population increased rapidly; townships were 
organized, ministers appointed, schools established after the manner of 
Xew England, and thus were planted the beginnings of institutions of New 
England origin, centuries old, in the "far west." General Garfield, one of 
the most distinguished sons of the Reserve, in an address delivered in 
1873. said : "There are tow r nships on this Western Reserve which are more 
thoroughly New r England in character and spirit than most of the towns 
of the New England of today. Cut off as they were from the metropolitan 
life that had gradually been molding and changing the spirit of New 
England, they preserved here in the wilderness the characteristics of New 
England as it was when they left it at the beginning of the century. This 
has given the people of the Western Reserve those strongly marked qual- 
ities which have always distinguished them." 2 

The township was thus the first political institution established. It 
was the primary unit of civil government and the plan of survey — five 
miles square — readily lent itself to the adoption of the New England sys- 
tem of local government. There were, however, some important differ- 
ences between the settlements here and the first settlements in New Eng- 
land. The townships were not drafted on the pattern of New England 
with the highways converging to the center of the town where the meeting 
house was located, with one exception — T almadge township in Summit 

1 Address bv James A. Garfield in W. R. Hist. Soc. Tracts. Vol. 1. Tract No. 20. 
p. 27. 

2 Ibid. p. 28. 


County. Neither did they come here as they came to New England, be- 
cause of religious dissatisfaction ; nor was there any need to fortify them- 
selves against the Indians, because they were generally friendly and 
mingled freely with the new settlers ; tillable land being abundant there 
was no common ownership in the New England sense and, hence, the 
social instinct was less developed ; neither were the settlements always 
made in church groups as in early New England. A settlement often be- 
gan with a family; sometimes a single individual who purchased a whole 
township left his family in New England, visited his purchase, built a 
cabin and returned the following year to bring his family and a few neces- 
sary household utensils, such as could be conveyed in a wagon drawn by a 
team of horses or oxen. The journey from New England — about 600 
miles from Connecticut — was beset with hardships and dangers and was, 
therefore, often made by the early settlers in groups numbering from ten 
to forty. Many of the letters of these early settlers have been preserved 
and from them w r e may review the life, thoughts, habits, and institutions 
of these sturdy pioneers. 1 I give extracts from one which is typical : 
"I was born at Middlefield, Hampshire Countv, Massachusetts, September 
I, 1800. In the Spring of 1.807 my father, Samuel Taylor, determined to re- 
move to Ohio, and on the eighth of May our family, with those of Jere- 
miah Root, Benjamin Eggleston and Joseph Eggleston, numbering in all 
thirty-six persons, took leave of our relatives and neighbors and started on 
our journey. . . .we were four days on the road from Warren to Aurora, a 
distance of less than thirty miles, where our journey of forty-five days ter- 
minated June 22, 1807, When we built our first log cabin the nearest 
neighbor on the north was $o miles away ; on the west, 60 miles, on the 
east about eight miles and on the south of Aurora, about ten to eleven 
miles to a house in Franklin township. 

"At that time Ohio was a vast wilderness with but few inhabitants, ex- 
cept the Indians, who outnumbered the whites, 2 or 3 to 1 ; but the forests 
were filled with deer, bear, wolves, elks, raccoon, wildcats, turkeys, and 
various other kinds of wild animals.... During the night-time we had 
serenades from the hooting owls, the growling of bears or the more enliv- 

1 Sf«> Annals of the Early Settlers' Association of Cuyahoga Co.; also Western 
Reserve Hist. Soc. Tract. 3 Vols. 


ening howl of the wolf, the recollection of which enables me to, appreciate 
a certain kind of operatic music which we now hear in some of our public 

assemblies A few days after our arrival I was sent to a school kept 

in a log school house, by Miss Polly Cannon, who received her education 

in Massachusetts Our teachers of that day were men and women 

who had been educated at the East and were generally of a high order of 
talent." 1 

From another letter describing events from 1803 to 1806 I quote: 
"I attended a celebration on the fourth at Joel Paines ; they fired guns, 
gave toasts and drank whiskey, made for the occasion over at Thompson's 
still, at the mouth of the Tiber. He also had a grist mill for grinding 
corn ; he could put in a bushel of corn at night and the morning it was 
corn meal. The mill stones came from near Willoughby (then called 
Chagrin) ; two men brought them on their shoulders with a hand spike 
through the eye — one at a time. The still was brought from Pittsburg on 
a one-horse dray. The dray was made by fastening two long poles to the 
harness — one each side of the horse — the other ends dragged on the 
ground; pins fastened the poles together a little behind the horse, and the 

load is fastened to the pins Indians were all about us. . . .they were 

perfectly friendly In the fall of 1803 my father and Capt. Skinner 

laid out a town and called it New Market It w r as situated between 

Skinner's and Gen. Paine's farms along the river." 2 

The above extracts suggest, and a careful perusal of the numerous 
letters, published recollections, and annals, lead one to conclude, that though 
the early settlers of the Reserve w r ere of Puritan stock, there were strong 
influences that tended to degrade the moral and religious elements of 
Puritanism; at least such is the opinion of Joseph Badger, the first mission- 
ary sent to the Reserve by the Connecticut Missionary Society. In 1802 
he records in his Memoirs: "Infidelity and profaning the Sabbath are gen- 
eral in this new place (Xewburg) and bid fair to grow into a hardened, 
corrupt society." 3 A fourth of July celebration at Hudson, 1801, where 
about thirty had assembled, it is noted as follows : "After an ap- 
propriate prayer, the oration was delivered, interlarded wit h many grossly 

1 Annals of Early Settlers' Association of Cuyahoga Co. Col. II, p. 143. 

2 Ibid. p. 132 f. 

3 Rev. Joseph Badger, Memoirs, Edited by Henry N. Day, 1851. p. 46. 

9 8 


illiberal remarks against Christians and Christianity." 1 It would thus 
appear that if the Bible was the chief work of literature read by 
the early settlers on the Reserve, as is so often stated by the histo- 
rian, it was by no means the only literature. In this scattered population 
of wide areas, of small communities and families, isolated by forests, free- 
dom of thought accompanied freedom of action, and there is reason to 
believe that it often preceded it : that many left their New England homes 
who were not dominated by the Westminster standards and who were out 
of sympathy with the New England creed. Volney and many other "in- 
fidel" writers were read, according to Badger, and no small part of that 
noble missionary's work was directed against the irreligious ideas current 
among the earlier settlers. He frequently appealed to the Connecticut 
Missionary Society for literature to counteract these influences. Mr. Bad- 
ger's work, however, seems to have been very successful and there were 
periods of great religious fervor. On one occasion, in 1803, he "preached 
to about 3,000 people collected for a sacramental sermon." 2 As to the 
character of the preaching, he says : "There, was nothing in the preaching 
calculated to move the passions otherwise than what is contained in the 
doctrine of total depravity, repentance, and faith as preached by all Cal- 
vinistic men." 3 Watt's Psalms and hymns which had not been used 
in any church, excepting one, west of the Alleghanies prior to 1801, were 
now, for the first time introduced. The old Scotch version had every- 
where been used with strong prejudices in its favor, and Mr. Badger 
seemed very much surprised that reading the "Hartford Hymns created no 
disturbance." In passing it should be said that Mr. Badger was more than 
a mere preacher of sectarianism. He preached the Gospel in the broadest 
sense, but his work was also that of an instructor in other educational 
lines. A graduate of Yale, endowed with intellectual powers that would 
have won fame at home, he left with his family of six children for the 
wilderness of the West at a salary of seven dollars a week. His work took 
him away from his family for months at a time, visiting the sick, making 
friends of the Indians, supplying books, establishing schools, social libra- 
ries, and in every way aiding the cause of humanity. When the war of 

1 Ibid. p. 27. 

2 Ibid. p. 50. 

3 Ibid. p. 52. 


1812 broke out he worked among- the Indians, persuading them to fight 
for the United States against England. General Harrison appointed him 
chaplain and postmaster of the army sent to guard the frontier, and in this 
position he also rendered valuable aid as scout and guide. He was, in 
fact, a heroic character who did much — perhaps as much as any single in- 
dividual, — to carry Puritan ideas into Western Reserve. 

Perhaps in no other field did New England exert a greater influence in 
Western Reserve than in the religious activities of the pioneer missionaries 
sent out by the missionary societies of the East. The work of such men 
as Joseph Badger, Thomas Robbins, David Bacon, John Seward. Harvey 
Coe, Simeon Woodruff, William Hanford, and Caleb Pitkin has left a 
permanent impress. These men labored under the auspices of the Connec- 
ticut Missionary Society and fifteen churches were organized as early as 
1823 j 1 and since Congregationalism in Ohio is essentially a New England 
contribution, we may form a general estimate of its influence in the Re- 
serve compared with other parts of Ohio by the distribution of the church 
members of that denomination in the state. The Congregational Year 
Book of 1856, the earliest one giving adequate statistics, gives the total 
number of members in Ohio at that time as 12,822 and of these 9,330 were 
on the Reserve. 

The early missionaries of the Western Reserve were also the pioneers 
in the educational system of the new West. In October, 1786, the General 
Assembly of Connecticut, passed an Act for a survey of the Reserve with 
the Proviso that 500 acres in every township should be reserved for the 
support of the ministry and the same amount for the support of the public 
schools within the township, but only 24.000 acres were sold when the Act 
was repealed. When the land was finally sold, the funds accruing from 
these sales were applied to the schools of the state. Thus, while at first 
proposing to make a generous endowment for education in the Reserve 
the. state abandoned the idea "at the same time that her children were go- 
ing by thousands into 'New Connecticut' where they were left to provide 
themselves with schools as best they could.'' 2 The enabling act of 
1802 for the admission of the state to the Union gave the inhabitants of 

1 Ohio Church Hist.. Society Papers. Vol. VIII. p. 62 f. 

2 B. A. Hinsdale, The History of Popular Education on the Western Reserve in 
Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications. Vol. VI. p. 37. 


every congressional township in Ohio section 36 for educational purposes ; 
another act vested the title of the lands in the state legislature ; but these 
acts did not apply to the Western Reserve, the Virginia Military District 
nor the United States Military Bounty Lands, amounting in all to about 
one-third of the whole area of the state. Connecticut appropriated to her 
own use the whole of the reservation ; so did Virginia, leaving the people 
of these. sections at a disadvantage. But Congress came to their aid and 
put them on the same footing as the rest of the state. 

Neither did the framers of the state constitution of 1802 contemplate 
a school system supported by the state. Article VIII of that act merely 
provides that "schools and the means of instruction shall for ever be en- 
couraged by legislative provisions" and that "no law shall be passed to 
prevent the poor in the several counties and townships within the state" 
from equal privileges in educational institutions supported in whole or in 
part from donations made by the United States. Section 27 of the same 
article gives associations the right to apply for charters of incorporation 
and the right to hold real and personal property for school purposes. In 
other words, there was no more contemplated by the framers of the first 
constitution in regard to schools than the granting of corporate powers 
and protecting the rights of persons and property. All laws relative to 
schools down to 182 1 dealt only with school lands and all education prior 
to that time was purely voluntary. 1 It was the early missionaries who 
first called attention to the educational needs. Mr. Badger writes, April 
8, 1810, "By preaching in different settlements and visiting small schools, 
now beginning to be set up, I learned the great want of school books ; and 
by family visits, I also learned the want of suitable books in the family. 2 
He himself then undertook the business of supplying the books and wrote 
to "several gentlemen dealing largely in books both in Boston and Hart- 
ford" but did not succeed very well financially, "although schools were 
supplied with books, and some social libraries furnished. Book dealers for- 
warded many unsalable books. The war coming on, increased the ex- 
pense of transportation, and books soon fell below their former price." 3 
He therefore sold all he could and gave the rest to poor people. As early 

1 Ibid. p. 39. 

2 J. Badger, Memoirs, p. 126. 

3 Ibid. 




as 1S01 Mr. Badger suggested the idea of obtaining a charter from the 
legislature authorizing the establishment of a college. 

In 1803 a charter was granted incorporating the "Erie Literary So- 
ciety." Joseph Hudson being the first-named incorporator and Rev. Jos- 
eph Badger the last. Private donations of land furnished the means of 
putting up a building in 1806, two stories high, the first being used for 
common school purposes and the second for an academy and for religious 
worship on Sunday. This was the beginning of Burton Academy in which 
Seabury Ford was fitted for Yale College where he graduated in 1825 and 
was afterwards elected Governor of Ohio. Peter Hitchcock, the first 
teacher, was afterward elevated to the Supreme Bench of the State, and 
David Tod, the eminent War Governor of Ohio, was educated here. A 
theological department was later added under the influence of the Presby- 
terian and Congregational churches. But the introduction of sectarianism 
reduced its patronage to such a hopeless extent that the institution was 
removed to Hudson, when it was called "Western Reserve College," and 
where it achieved a wide reputation. In 1882 it was removed to Cleveland 
where it was called ''Adelbert College of Western Reserve University." 1 
Thus the first institution of higher education began with the primitive 
settlers who brought with them little else than their Puritan faith — a 
faith in themselves, in schools, churches and a belief in the efficacy of 
moral virtues. 

In the history of the development of the common school system of 
Ohio, New England influence was likewise strong. In the constitutional 
convention of 185 1 the members from the Reserve, many of them of Xew 
England birth, wielded a dominating influence. The school laws made in 
accordance with that constitution were largely the work of Harvey Rice, 
born in Massachusetts in 1800, and John W. Willey, one of the early set- 
tlers of Cleveland and a descendant of a Massachusetts family. 

Thus far the influence of Xew England in Western Reserve has been 
considered primarily with reference to church and religious life, and educa- 
tion. A word should also be said of those distinguished political leaders 
and jurists who on Reserve rose to fame and many of whose names are na- 

1 Harvey Rice, Sketches of Western Life. p. 97. 


Joshua R. Giddings, though born in Pennsylvania, was a product of 
the Western Reserve. Rufus P. Ranney, whom Rhodes 1 has called the 
best lawyer and soundest judge in Ohio, was born in Massachusetts, as 
was also Benjamin Wade. During the first half century of statehood the 
Reserve gave six judges to the Supreme court of Ohio four of whom were 
born in Connecticut, one in Vermont and one in Massachusetts ; and the 
decisions of some of these judges were important, since the earlier decisions 
upon questions of law incident to a new country formed precedents which 
established a system of western common law which has since become 
a standard authority. One of these judges was Calvin Pease whose deci- 
sions, contained in the first four volumes of "Hammond's Reports," were 
the first law reports published by the state. The decisions of these judges 
were by no means always popular and it is interesting to note that in 1808 
the legislature impeached Judges Tod, Sprigg and Huntington for declar- 
ing a law of the legislature unconstitutional. They escaped by only one 
vote but in 1809 the legislature passed an act declaring their office vacant. 
The case arose on appeal from a justice in Western Reserve and feeling 
on this subject is shown in a letter to Judge Tod, also from the Reserve, 
written by a member of the legislature and one of the framers of the con- 
stitution of 1802. Judged from its contents it might have been written 
during the campaign of 1912: 

"Hon. George Tod — Sir: If the judges have a right to set aside laws 
because they seem to them unconstitutional, the people have no security, 
except the infallibility of the judges. 

"If the judges have a right to set aside laws because they are uncon- 
stitutional, they cannot be removed from office, because it would be hard 
indeed to remove a judge for error in judgment. If the judges have a 
right to set laws aside, then the people have no power left them, except 
choosing their representatives, for the representatives may enact laws, the 

judges set them aside, and thus Government would be at an end If 

the people allow the judges to set aside laws, does it not make the judi- 
ciary a complete aristocratic branch by setting the judges over the heads 
of the legislature? 

"Nothing, I think, could have originated the idea, except it is the script- 

1 Hist, of U. S. Vol. 1. p. 299. 


ure account of God and the devil — one to create, the other to destroy." 1 
But, besides the distinguished leaders in religious thought, in educa- 
tion, politics and law, who achieved national distinction, one is impressed 
in tracing out the history of the local communities on the Reserve, to find 
so many names of men and women leaders in their local community, who 
rendered service to their city, county, state and even nation, — names fal- 
ling a little below the range of the national historian, — yet representing 
services upon which great national issues have turned and have been decid- 
ed for the right. The majority of these persons were named in Xew Eng- 
land for they were of New England birth. Their ideas were carried forward 
by the generations which followed them and their ideals were generally 
accepted as a standard of civic and moral conduct. And the intelligent ob- 
server living in the Reserve today has constant evidence that neither time 
nor change has erased the early Furitan impress upon this section of the 
state. An analysis of the vote upon the constitutional amendments proposed 
in 1912 still shows the Reserve counties united in sentiment and purpose 
on the moral questions involved. 2 

To briefly summarize, this may be said in conclusion : That the early 
settlers of the Reserve were almost wholly of New England stock; that 
the first settlements were made by families or in groups scattered through- 
out the occupied territory and from which a local leadership was developed 
which shaped the social, religious and political life on the Reserve. This 
leadership, remained in the hands of the New Englanders long after the 
original Puritan was outnumbered by the native-born and the immigrant 
who came from outside of New England — for in 1840 only about one- 
fourth of those living on the Reserve came from New England ; that one 
of the chief elements of Puritanism — reverence for religion — tended to dis- 
appear when the scattered settlements passed from under the influence of 
an organized church community but was reestablished or revived by the 
work of the missionaries ; that the common school system and higher edu- 
cation were of New England Origin ; that the two chief lines of New Eng- 
land influence were religious and educational ; that the connection between 
New England and the Reserve was personal, not polit ical, and that out of 

1 Western Reserve Historical Society Tracts. No. 2 p. 3. f. 

2 R. E. Cushman, "Voting Organic Laws" in Political Science Quarterly, XXVII, 
p. 220. 


it all developed the western Puritan. The total result of these begin- 
nings belong to a later period which may properly form a separate chap- 
ter, but this much is already apparent ; that it what Ranke says is true in 
principle, that no community ever rose to important consequences in 
which the religious motive was not dominant,* it may find its verification 
in the history of the Western Reserve. 

*L. v. Ranke, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeibalter der Reformation, Vol. I. Intro- 


(Srttm^ro $c ($0mmntt 

on poofy* anb <$tljer 5uhject^ 

It is reported that Secretary of the Navy Daniels is searching New 
England for a descendant of Commodore Samuel Tucker, born in Marble- 
head, November I, i/4/, to christen the largest and fleetest destroyer of 
the United States Navy at the Fore River yards soon, which is to be 
named in honor of the Marblehead naval officer, who was one of the 
Massachusetts privateersmen, in the Revolutionary War, and the War 
of 1812. 

The house in which he lived prior to the Revolution is still standing 
in Marblehead. He settled on a farm near Bristol, Me., after the war. 
Though he was thanked especially by Congress for his brilliant services 
in capturing the enemies' ships, the government never properly compen- 
sated him for those services, and the poor old hero passed his last years 
in comparative poverty. 

•The following communication from Librarian Clarence S. Brigham, of 
the American Antiquarian Society, will be of great interest to genealogi- 
cal searchers, who are interested in tracing emigrants from Massachusetts 
to Michigan and other parts of the West: 

"My dear Sirs : — 

"I noticed that in your last issue, received today, the fact is recorded 
that very few volumes of western county histories — the case of Michigan 
being in point — are to be found in New England libraries. You note 
that none of the Boston libraries contain more than two of the Michigan 
county histories. The Library of the American /\ntiquarian Society has 
about 200 titles relating to Michigan, including about 20 local histories. 
I notice one title which is not included in Mr. Flagg's list, the "History 
and Directory of Kent County," compiled by Dillenback & Leavitt, Grand 
Rapids, 1870, pp. 319. This is the earliest county history of Michigan and 
contains considerable relating to early pioneers. 

"The Library of the American Antiquarian Society has always made 



local histories of the United States one of its specialties. Of about 1500 
town and county histories of New England, I know of only four titles 
missing in the collection. The collection of New York local histories 
contains about 250 volumes, that of Pennsylvania 200 volumes, that of 
Ohio nearly 100 volumes, and a fair proportion of the county histories ot 
all the Western States. I am writing this letter, not to exploit the value 
of the Library in this direction, but to call to the attention of researchers 
throughout New England that such a collection can be consulted at this 
Library." ~ J! „ ill 

We are glad to know that so many of these are available in Massa- 
chusetts, and hope that Mr. Brigham will furnish us with a list of the 
county history titles which he has, for publication in our next issue. 

This reminds us of the value of articles on Massachuestts historical 
libraries, such as those on the "Massachusetts Historical Society,"' and the 
"Boston Public Library,*' already published in the Massachusetts Magazine, 
to inform students and searchers of distinctive departments in which the 
great historical libraries of Massachusetts excel. Mr. Charles A. Flagg, 
compiler of the Michigan Pioneer series, consulted several of the best in- 
formed librarians in tjie state — yet none were aware of this special 
collection of the American Antiquarian Society. W r e shall print an ar- 
ticle describing the rich treasures in the library of the American Anti- 
quarian Society in a future number. 

The distinguished head of the famous Adams family, Charles Francis 
Adams, died on March 20, 19 15, nearly 80 years of age. Trained 
to the law, he was distinguished as soldier, public official, railroad presi- 
dent, lecturer and historian. Since 1895 ne nas been President of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society and has been the recognized leader in 
reforming that venerable society of One Hundred from the narrow self- 
centred spirit into which it had fallen, previous to his direction of its 


We have to correct an error of identity in our last issue. It was not 
Mr. Francis Parkman, the historian, who presented $5,000,000 to Boston, 
but George F. Parkman. 

Foimer Governor Curtis Guild, died April 6, 1915, in his fifty-third year, 
after a very brief sickness, contracted at Salem, where he went to deliver an 
address, something he was constantly requested to do, on all manner of pub- 
lic occasions. It was the strain put upon him by these constant efforts 
to please his friends that was responsible, in a large degree, for his death. 
We recall with regret his letter printed in our last issue which in full, 
read as foliows: — 

Boston, Mass., Feb. 19, 1915. 
My dear Mr. Dennis: 

You have doubtless noticed from the newspapers that I have been confined 
to my bed for nearly three weeks with a very serious illness, the result of a com- 
plete break-down from trying to oblige too many who wish me in the general 
public interest to do extra outside work. 

This is the first opportunity I have had to answer your letter of January 28th. 
It is now, of course, too late for me to prepare the article you desire. I can only 
express my regrets that illness, and illness alone, prevented my undertaking the 
task. Faithfully yours, 


His big, generous-hearted nature would not allow him to say no to 
anyone who asked for his time and energy. This was the key to his great 
popularity, so manifest by the public and the press in his funeral ob- 
sequies. We gave a biography of his life in the Massachusetts Magazine 
for October, 1908. . Among the many new anecdotes and stories told on 
the occasion of his death, we would record this one, from one of his poli- 
tical adversaries, illustrative of his broad and kindly sympathy for others: 

"When I was being fiercely attacked he called my house on the tele- 
phone and told my wife not to be alarmed by stories in the newspapers. 
*It : s all politics and damnable politics at that,' he said. 'Thinking people 
have confidence in him and he'll come out right in the end. I am looking 


forward to the day myself wnen I will be relieved of public office because 
I do not know the hour when some State officer, whom I cannot possibly 
know about, will commit some act that will disgrace the State and I will 
be held responsible.' It can well be imagined how much this meant to 
my famiy and how much it was appreciated, but it was just like Curtis 

Though the ter-centenary anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrims 
at Plymouth is yet five years in the future, it was considered none too 
soon to make plans for a fitting celebration of the event, and several 
bills have been presented to the General Court since the first of the year, 
looking to the appointment of a commission to make plans and prepara- 
tions for the event. 

A commission of seven was appointed by Governor Walsh, in March, 
consisting of the following: Ex-Governor Curtis Guild, Sherman L. Whip- 
ple, lawyer, of Brookline ; Rev. Albert E. Dunning, editor of the Congre- 
gationalist ; Ralph A. Cram, architect; Denis A. McCarthy, poet; James 
Logan, ex-mayor of Worcester; Arthur Lord, president of the Pilgrim So- 
ciety and treasurer of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

The Governor's selection is considered an excellent one, and the com- 
mission will report to the next legislature. 

Various plans have been suggested, among others a world's fair in or 
near Boston, a great pageant at Plymouth, the erection of an imposing 
monument at Plymouth, etc. 

Which ever form is undertaken there is no doubt that the year 1920 will 
be one of great rejoicing not merely in Massachusetts, but throughout 
the entire countrv, for the arrival of the Pilgrims was one of the most im- 
portant events in the history of America. 




1 ' - .- - 

I £ ■■ ■ 


,-C^ Samuel Bowles 





®lj? fRassarijitspiis iHagaztn? 

A Quarterly Magazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 


Deorfield, Mass. 

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Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c. 

vol. vm 

JULY, 1915 

NO. 3 

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Jonathan Ward's Regiments . Frank A.Gardner, M.D. . 123 

Criticism and Comment 153 

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I cf 



By Albert W. Dennis 

The death of Samuel Bowles, at Springfield, on March 14, called the 
attention of New England and the entire country to that unique and power- 
fully influential newspaper the Springfield Republican; and the family which 
has always been identified with it. 

Springfield, Mass., is a city of just over 100,000 population, yet it has 
a newspaper known, respected and quoted as widely throughout the country 
as any metropolitan daily of whatever circulation in the United States. 
The remarkable achievement of developing such a newspaper in so small 
a city is due to one family — father, son, and grandson: Samuel Bowles who 
started the paper as a weekly in 1824; Samuel Bowles, who at 18 years of 
age induced his father to convert the weekly into a daily, immediately as- 
sumed the responsibility of management and became one of the great edi- 
tors of American journalism, the peer of Greeley, Raymond and Dana; and 
Samuel Bowles (just deceased) who assumed sole control of the Republican 
upon his father's death in 1878, and maintained the high character and pres- 
tige of the publication through the past thirty-seven years. 

Every son of an illustrious father finds public opinion disinclined to 
bestow credit for what he achieves in life; and the son just deceased has 
been no exception to this rule. But the unanimously expressed opinion 


of the press of the nation since his death, is that he has done all that human 
genius could do within the limitations of such a circumscribed population 
as Springfield and the Connecticut valley; and that the influence and power 
of the Springfield Republican is as great today as ever. 

None of the newspapers of the country more freely or generously admitted 
this than the editors of the great newspapers in New York City: 

New York Evening Post said: "The Republican has continued to hold 
both its local constituency and its place in the nation, without any de- 
parture from its standards of good taste and good sense. In doing so it 
has rendered a service to our civilization the value of which it would be 
difficult to over-estimate." 

New York Times said: "While keeping the Springfield Republican 
abreast with the times year by year, he never lowered its standards. He 
was alive to new ideas and new issues, but he was careful to preserve al- 
ways the dignity, honesty and cleanliness of his newspaper and its good in- 
fluence was recognized in his day as it was in his father's, all over the coun- 

" New York World said: "The third Samuel Bowles conserved and 
strengthened the work of his father and grandfather. . . .more than 
this he could not hope to do in a comparatively small city and under limita- 
tions which increasingly tie down the daily newspaper circulation to the 
neighboring audience. . . ." 

The following are a few opinions from the far west: 

Topeka (Kansas) Daily Capital: "We have regarded the Springfield 
Republican, considering that it is printed in a town of less than 100.000 pop- 
ulation, as one of the most remarkable newspapers in the world, for it is with- 
out a superior, even if it actually has a rival in its influence over the best 
thought of the whole American continent." 

Des Moines Register and Leader said: "The Springfield Republican 
has been through two generations, partly because of tradition, partly be- 
cause of a unique old-fashionedness, but mainly because of real power, the 
best known and most widely-quoted newspaper in the country in a city 
less than 100,000 people." 


St. Paul Pioneer Press says: "With the passing of Samuel Bowles a 
towering monument of American journalism has been removed. The idea 
of the modern newspaper is more or less commercial. It strives to meet 
a legitimate demand, the demand of its readers. By securing circulation 
it is enabled to maintain an expensive popular service of news, features 
and advertising. It is edited from the people as well as to the people. 

"The character of the Springfield Republican is different. It embodies, 
simon-pure and without compromise, the personal ideals of an idealistic 
editor. It maintains a literary and journalistic tradition which is unsullied 
by popular clamor. It scorns headlines, features and display of any des- 
cription. Instead of a newspaper in the modern sense, it falls little short 
of being a symposium of current historical treatises. 

" Its circulation, therefore, is such as a big modern daily could gain or 
lose almost any day and feel no change. But the editors of the big modern 
dailies read the Republican with wholesome respect. They know its word 
is law and they admire its ideals. Thus the Republican has been a master 
influence upon the public opinion of the L T nited States." 

North and South, East and West, from nearly every journal of promin- 
ence in the country came editorial utterances of similar import. 

The New Republic said: "In many respects the Springfield Republican 
stands as the highest achievement of American Journalism. . < 

To him the publication of a newspaper was not a business. It was an art." 

The Bowles Family. 

These opinions and this occasion give renewed interest to the remark- 
able family behind the Springfield Republican. It struck its roots into 
New England soil two and three-quarter centuries ago, but did not take 
up ink and paper as a vocation until its sixth generation — about 100 years 
ago. The eight generations w r ere: 

1st John Bowles, the original founder of the family, came to New 
England in 1640; was one of the prominent men of Roxbury, 
Mass; was an elder in the first church; one of the founders of 
the Roxbury free school; and a member of the Artillery Co. 


2nd John Bowles (born 1653, died 1691) was baptised by the Apostle 
Eliot, and married Eliot's grand daughter; was a graduate of 
Harvard in 1671; was elder in the church; was representative 
to the General Court, and elected speaker of the House. 

3rd John Bowles (born 16S5, died 1737) graduated from Harvard in 
1703; was prominent in managing town affairs of Roxbury; 
was major in the militia; was representative in the General 
Court for ten successive years. 

4th Joshua Bowles (born 1722, died 1794) was furniture carver in 
Boston, a very benevolent and pious man, prayed aloud while 
. walking the street, mingled scriptural language with his speech 
in business. 

5th Samuel Bowles (born 1762, died 1813) was thirteen years old 
when the Revolutionary war broke out; his two brothers served 
in the war as sergeant and captain; he was not a graduate 
of Harvard; got scanty schooling; learned the pewterers trade; 
on account of poor business removed to Hartford and kept a 
grocery store, at which he seems to have made little more than 
a living; but was described as "a man of quick wit, good sense 
and strict honesty;" not a member of any church, but always 
x governed by a sense of religious duty. 

6th Samuel Bowles (born 1797; died 1851). It will readily be ob- 
served that thiis far the Bowles family is on the decline — that 
- Joshua the 4th and Samuel the 5th were not the equals in 
ability and capacity of the 1st John, 2nd John and 3rd John, 
who preceded them. From men of affairs and leadership among 
their fellows, in the first three generations, the men have de- 
scended to "furniture worker" and small grocer. So we look 
with interest to see what abilities are displayed by this the 7th 
generation, in our line of descent. It must be admitted that 
there is not manifest much improvement — such power as there 
was was still pursuing its subterranean course — as it often does 


in families. He is described as a prim sober man, slow in his 
mental action, cautious and canny; respected and trusted, but 
laughed at a little some times for his stiffness and odd ways. He 
received a common school education, worked for his father a 
little, but later apprenticed to the printing business. He was 
not through with his apprenticeship until after he was of age, 
and then struggled on for several years with "dubious success." 
At the age of 27, being married, with one child, becoming dis- 
satisfied with his prospects in Connecticut, he decided on re- 
moving with a small printing plant he had, to Springfield, where 
he had some relatives who helped him financially. He moved 
up the river on a flat boat in 1824 and in September of that 
year started the Springfield Republican. Mr. Bowles was him- 
self editor, reporter, compositor and pressman. But Springfield 
was the largest and most prosperous town in western Massa- 
chusetts, and the paper started with a subscribers list of 250 at 
$2 per year; and it is evident that the paper satisfied its readers, 
for it slowly and steadily prospered and yielded a living for the 
proprietor and his family, which eventually consisted of five 
children, as follows: 

Albert, born Jan. 17, 1823; died Aug. 16, 1823. 

Julia, born Feb. 21, 1824: married Adonijah Foot 
June 20, 1848; died Aug. 29, 1851. 
. Samuel, born Feb. 9, 1826; married Mary S. Dwight 
Schermerhorn Sept, 6, 1848; died Jan. 16, 1878. 

Amelia Peabody, born Feb. 18, 1818; married Hen- 
ry Alexander Nov. 8, 1847; died 1896. 

Benj. Franklin, born Apr. 19, 1833; married Mary 
E. Bailey; died in Paris, May 4, 1876. 

Samuel it will be seen was born about two years after the starting of 
the Republican. So he practically grew up with the paper. He was not 
a boy who liked manual labor, or who went in strong for sports such as skat- 


ing or base ball. But was marked by fate with a fondness for reading books, 
magazines and newspapers, especially the latter. He left school at 17 and 
entered the printing office to help his father. He had never shown any 
aptitude for the mechanical end of the business, but readily took to reporting: 
developed ambitions for the paper, and in less than a year surprised his 
father by proposing to make the Republican a daily. His father, near fifty 
and satisfied with his moderate success, was not favorable to the idea at 
first, but finally yielded to his son's persistence and argument, on condition 
that the son shoulder the responsibility of "pushing it.'" So the Daily Re- 
publican was started March 27, 1844, when young Sam Bowles was 18 years 
of age. 

On this young man's shoulders fell the responsibilities of initiative and 
the larger part of the brain work. He showed keen observation, cultivated 
a simple clear style, and acquired the art of boiling down for the Republi- 
can the gist of news. But it is said that at the outset he was a slow writer 
and a slow thinker. Even his news reports were written patiently and 

. Born at a time when the parental fires of ambition and exertion burned 
with their reddest glow, he inherited a genius for concise, brief, and pun- 
gent composition, and an ability to perceive with keen precision what was 
good in the work of others, which made him one of the ablest of managing 
editors. So he drew to himself such excellent assistants as Dr. J. G. 
Holland, Samuel H. Davis, J. E. Hood, Solomon B. Griffin, Charles G. 
Whiting, Wilmot L. Warren and correspondents like D. W. Bartlett 
("Van"), Wm. S. Robinson ("Warrington.") and gradually built up a staff 
under his inspiration and leadership, who made the Republican interesting 
in every line of every column. 

To understand how Mr. Bowles established and made the daily Spring- 
field Republican one of the great newspapers of the country, one needs to 
view the condition of provincial journalism as it existed in the preceding 
age. Of which Mr. Bowles has written as follows: 

"News had grown old when it was published. The paper did the work 
of the chronicler or annalist merely, and was the historian of the past rather 


than a spectator and actor in the present. It was not upon the printed 
column that the events of the day struck the heart of the living age, and 
drew from it its spark of fire. In those times that place of contact was found 
in the personal intercourse of men. News ran then along the street, from 
mouth to mouth; the gossiping neighbor carried it; the post-rider brought 
it into the groups gathered at the village store. By and by came the heavy 
gazette, not to make its impression but to record the fact. The journalism 
was yet to be created that should stand firmly in the possession of power 
of its own; that should perfectly reflect its age, and yet should be itself no 
mere reflection; that should control what it seemed only to transcribe and 
narrate; that should teach without assuming the manners of an instructor, 
and should command the coming times with a voice that had still no sound 
but its echo of the present." 

An editorial on "The Newspaper," which appeared in the Republican 
January 4, 1851. six years after the daily was started, gives an idea of the 
wonderful new journalism wrought by the telegraphic dispatches, and is 
an excellent specimen of the powerful editorials that were making the Re- 
publican sl national reputation: 

"Nothing can be more evident to the public, and nothing certainly is 
more evident to publishers of newspapers, than that there is a great deal 
more news nowadays than there used to be . . . Publishers of country week- 
lies used to fish with considerable anxiety in a shallow sea, for matter suffi- 
cient to fill their sheets, while dailies only dreamed of an existence in the 
larger cities. . .Now all is changed. The increase of facilities for the trans- 
mission of news brought in a new era. The railroad car, the steamboat, and 
the magnetic telegraph have made neighborhood among widely dissevered 
states, and the Eastern Continent is but a few days journey away. These 
active and almost miraculous agencies have brought the whole civilized 
world in contact. The editor sits in his sanctum and his obedient messengers 
are the lightning and the fire. He knows a fire has raged in London before 
the wind could waft its smoke to him; the lightning tells him of an explo- 
sion in New Orleans before they have counted the dead and wounded; the 
debates of Congress are in his hands, though hundreds and thousands of 
miles from the Capitol, before the members who participated in them have 
eaten their dinner; a speech is under his eyes before the hurrahs it awakened 
have died away; and there he sits day after day, as if he were the center of the 


world to whom all men and things are accountable, and all actions returnable. 
These events are chronicled and explained, and then they are given to 
his messengers, the rushing engines, which carry them to thousands of 
greedy eyes, waiting to see, in one brief transcript, tht record of the 
world's great struggle the previous day. The appetite for news is one of 
those appetites that grows by what it feeds on. The mind accustomed 
to the gossip of nations cannot content itself with the gossip of families. 
The tendency of this new state of things has as yet hardly claimed a moment's 
consideration from the moralist and the philosopher. Nations and indi- 
viduals now stand immediately responsible to the world's opinion, and the 
world, interesting itself in the grand events transpiring in its various parts, 
and among its various parties, has become, and still is becoming, liberalized 
in feeling; and being called away from its exclusive home-fields has forgotten 
in its universal interests, the petty interests, feuds, gossips and strifes of fam- 
ilies and neighborhoods. This wonderful extension of the field of vision, 
this compression of the human race, into one great family, must tend to 
identify its interests, sympathies, and motives. The press is destined. 
more than any other agency, to melt and mould the jarring and contending 
nations of the world into that one great brotherhood which through long 
centuries has been the ideal of the Christian and the philanthropist. Its 
mission has but just commenced. A few years more and a great thought 
uttered within sight of the Atlantic will rise with the morrow's sun and shine 
upon millions of minds within the sight of the Pacific. The murmer of 
Asia's multitudes will be heard at our doors; and laden with the fruit of all 
human thought and action, the newspaper will be in every abode, the 
daily nourishment of every mind." 

The strength of the daily Republican from the first lay largely in its 
political discussions. While its news service was inferior to that of journals 
in the large centres of population, it handled the political questions of 
the day with a breadth, intelligence and vigor which few journals then or 
afterward surpassed. In its very first issue as a daily it had an editorial 
in opposition to the annexation of Texas. It supported the whig party and 
later opposed it; opposed Charles Sumner's first election to the United States 
Senate; opposed abolition; attacked the U. S. Supreme Court for its decision 
in the Dred Scott case; declared President Buchanan's policy of forcing 
slavery upon Kansas, apt to lead to civil war; supported Stephen A. Douglas 


and later opposed him as a demagogue; considered John Brown a fanatic, 
but a hero, and protested against his execution; was so strong in its opposi- 
tion to the South that it was excluded from the Southern mails; at the close 
of the war urged liberal treatment of the South. 

We get this pen picture of the man "on the job," from an out-side friend 
who once accompanied him to the office: 

"As we entered the office, hastily pointing me to a chair, he fell into con- 
versation with a person who was writing at the table, and asked rapid ques- 
tions: "Did you do this? and this? Have you sent that letter? Did 
Chapin come in? Did he agree? Right down mad? — well I can explain 
it all." Send Mifflin to me [names of course fictitious]. Mifflin came. "Have 
you looked up the matter of the railroads?" "Yes?" "What I believed 
was right?" "Y r es, and more besides." "Then put it all into an article 
three quarters of a column long — not a word longer — clear, decided, as if 
you felt the ground under your feet. That's all. Will you send Chapman?" 
"Good evening, Mr. Chapman — now I want to settle the business about 
the compromise once for all — no compromise in the way we do it. You 
need not be unjust, but hit 'em hard. Your last was longer than I told 
you to have it — don't be word}-; keep within the exact limit of a quarter 
"of a column. Is Endicott within?" "Endicott glad to see you. Have 
you worked up the school business? Don't be afraid because some of the 
men are ministers. We'll prove that we are God Almighty's gentlemen 
ourselves. These wrongs ought to be righted and if we must we will 
shame them out of their indifference, clergyman and all. A column and a 
half you may take — I need not tell you not to be long — shorter, if you 
choose, but say it strong." 

After Mr. Bowles death, Dr. Holland, his editorial associate, wrote of 
him as follows: 

"As I think of my old associate, and the earnest exhausting work he was 
doing when I was with him, he seems to me like a great golden vessel, rich 
in color and roughly embossed, filled with the elixir of life, which he poured 
out without the slightest stint for the consumption of this people. This 
vessel was only full at the first and it was never replenished. It was filled 
for an expenditure of fifty or sixty years, but he kept the stream so large 
that the precious contents were all decanted at thirty. The sparkle, the 


vivacity, the drive, the power of the Republican, as I know it in the early 
days, the fresh and ever eager interest with which it was every morning 
received by the people of Springfield and the Connecticut Valley, the super- 
iority of the paper to other papers of its class, its ever widening influence — 
all these cost life. We did not know when we tasted it and found it so charged 
with zest that we were tasting heart's blood, but that was the priceless 
element that commended it to our appetites. A pale man, weary and ner- 
vous, crept home at midnight, or at one, two, or three o'clock in the morning 
and while all nature was fresh and the birds were singing, and thousands of 
eyes were bending eagerly over the results of his nights labor, he was 
tossing and trying to sleep. Yet this work, so terrible in its exactions and 
its consequences was the joy of this man's life — it was this man's life; and 
was the best exponent of the kind of devotion to an idea and a life-work I 
have ever known. I give its memory most affectionate reverence. 

"His love of thoroughness was united with a firm personal belief that 
no one could do his work as well as he could do it himself. His strong con- 
viction that his way was always the best way led him to fret and worry over 
the work of others, and to do all that he could with his own hands. I have 
known him in the early part of his career to sit up at night for hours that 
he might read a little batch of unimportant proof, which was measurably sure 
in the foreman's hands to come out right in the morning, — little fancying 
that he was selling his life at that petty price. Mr. Bowles died of over- 
work and overwatching, and proved that the man who, in a large admin- 
istrative place, undertakes, in any considerable degree, to execute his own 
plans in their unimportant details, must suffer the penalty of death." 

Of Mr. Bowles, Mr. Bryan wrote in the Paper World some time after 
his death: 

"Labor was his relaxation, toil his daily meat and drink, perseverance 
his amusement, and achievement his recompense. Once placed on the 
high road to fame and fortune, the Republican made rapid strides in the 
way of achievement and success, but Mr. Bowles never slackened his hold 
on the reins of government and management, or eased his shoulders from the 
heavy burden of labor which he assumed at the outset. He was omnipresent. 
He knew everything, saw everything, dictated everything and his dictation 
dictated every time." 



^ ■ftflwiy w , t** > ^5i f *y i' ig ' y l A)'f T , i ,i ■.u,.*» f gpEp 


i.-«*. ,^«*su«« I—*, 

^^*^*^***u3l^~~xxz^- -.-v-JiV* -rtrfteia«frai^ 


Samuel Bowles 


The portrait shown on the front cover 
is that of his father. 



He married Mary S. Dwight Schermerhorn, daughter of Henry V. R 
Schermerhorn of Geneva, N Y., and granddaughter of James S. Dwight, 
Springfield merchant, and had ten children, as follows: 

Sarah Augusta Bow t les, born June 6, 1850; married June 30, 1874, 
Thomas Hooker, of New Haven, Conn. Died March, 1909. 
Children: , 

Aurelia Dwight. born, May 2, 1875; died, 1899. 
Richard, born, 1878; married in 1910, Winifred Newberry of 
Cleveland, O. Was Washington correspondent for the 
Republican for several years, and later joined the editorial 
staff. Since the death of Samuel Bowles in March, he has 
been editor and publisher. 
Thomas, Jr., born, July 26, 18S2, married in September, 1915, 
Emily Morgan, of New Haven, Conn., where he is practising 

Samuel Bowles, born October 15, 1851; married June 12, 1884, Eliza- 
beth Hoar of Concord, Mass. Died, March 14, 1915. Children: 

Samuel, born, July 31, 18S5; now on the reportorial staff of the 
Boston Journal. 

Sherman Hoar, born April 24, 1890; was connected with the 
Philadelphia Public Ledger; later associate manager of the 
Springfield Daily News, an evening paper at Springfield, Mass., 
which publication was this month (August), purchased by 
the Springfield Republican. Mr. Bowles is now treasurer of 
the Springfield Republican Company. 

Mary Dwight Bowles, born January 10, 1854; married April 3, 1875, 

W. H. King, son of John L. King of Springfield; now resides in 

Winnetka, 111. Children: 

William Harding, Jr., born, 1878: died, 1904. 

Samuel Bowles, born 1882 or 1883. 

Mary Schermerhorn, born September, 1886. 

John Lord, born, 1891. 
(Then came, at intervals of two years, three children who died at or 
soon after birth, who were not named). 

Charles Allen Bow t les, born December 19, 1861; married October, 
1885, Nellie Harris, of Rutland, Vt.; now of the firm of Dexter 
& Bowles, Springfield, dealers in paper makers' supplies. Children: 
Dorothy, born January, 29, 1887. 
Charles Allen, Jr., born September, 20, 1889. 
Chester Bliss, born April 5, 1901. 


Dwight Whitney Bowles, born, November 15, 1863; married in 1891, 
Josephine Porter of Chicago; engaged in newspaper work in New 
York and Chicago. Child: 
Whitney, born 1894. 

Ruth Standish Bowles, born December 5, 1865; married, October 30, 
1889, to William H. Baldwin, Jr., president of the Long Island 
Railroad, who died January 3, 1905. (See volume entitled 
"An American Citizen." a life of Mr. Baldwin by John Graham 
Brooks). Mrs. Baldwin now resides at Washington, Conn. 
Ruth Standish, born August 8, 1890; married September 26, 

1914 to John F. Folinsbee, landscape artist. 
William H. Baldwin, 3rd, born September 17, 1891, and now 

connected with the New York Evening Post. 
Mary Chaffee, born February 19, 1896; died, March, 1897. 

Elizabeth Lee Bowles, born December 3, 1867, married December 
24, 1891, Frederick Mitchell Munroe, editor of Brooklyn Life for 
nineteen years, also editor of Town and Country Magazine. She 
died at Huntington, L. I., April 26, 1911. Children: 
Donald Mitchell, born December 11, 1892; now on the ad- 
vertizing staff of the Republican. 
Elizabeth Bowles, born October 9, 1894. 
Ruth Schermerhorn, born October 23, 1897. 

Samuel Bowles, 1851-1915. 

Samuel Bowles, who has just died, began his work on the Springfield Re- 
publican in 1873, about five years before his father died. 

He was born in Springfield, Oct. 15, 1851, attended public and private 
schools, travelled and studied two and a half years in Europe, took special 
courses at Yale, in 1871-3 and a term at the University of Berlin. He jour- 
neyed in the west so as to know his own country before settling clown to his 
life work. He spent two years as assistant in the editorial department be- 
fore his father placed him in charge of the business department in 1875. 

Under his management the Republican has been developed and expanded, 
to promptly meet the ever changing conditions of newspaper publication; 
it has been managed safely, sanely, and kept on a sound financial basis, 


and held firmly to its great ideals of independent editorial policy.* He erected 
in 1888 the present building at the corner of Main street and Harrison avenue, 
in 1910 adding two more stories, making editorial quarters equalled by few 
other newspaper buildings in the country. He spared no expense or effort 
to give the Republican every new improvement that meant better service 
to the public, and a cleaner more attractive paper. 

He has always regarded the Republican from the editor's point of view 
rather than the publisher's — as an agency for public service; and is said to 
have been as consistent in this attitude as it is possible for any human 
being to be consistent. 

The Sunday issue of the Republican was started in 1878, the same year 
that he assumed the management. 

Mr. Bowles married on June 12, 1884, Elizabeth Hoar of Concord, daugh- 
ter of Judge Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar, brother of the late Senator George 
Frisbie Hoar. They had two sons, Samuel, born July 31, 1885, who is con- 
nected with the Boston Journal, and Sherman Hoar, born April 24, 1890, 
who was associated with the Philadelphia Public Ledger for a few years; 
was manager of an opposition newspaper in Springfield, which has very 

*This policy, declared editorially in February, 1855, is worth referring to here, because 
it has been more consistently and faithfully followed for a greater length of time than that 
of any other great daily in New England: 

"With the dawn of a new national growth upon the press of America, at the period of 
which we speak, came also a more perfect intellectual freedom from the shackles of party. 
The independent press of the country is fast supplanting the merely partisan press. Parties 
are taking their form and substance from the press and pulpit, rather, than the press and 
pulpit echoing merely the voice of the party. A merely party organ is now a thing despised 
and contemned, and can never take rank as a first class public journal. The London Times, 
the great journal of the world, is a creator, not the creature, of parties. There is not in 
New York, where journalism in this country has reached its highest material and intellec- 
tual perfection, a single party organ in existence. All are emancipated. None conceal facts 
lest they injure their party. None fear to speak the truth lest they utter treason against 
merely partisan power. The true purpose of the press is understood and practiced upon. 
They are the mirrors of the word of fact and of thought. Upon that fact do they comment 
with freedom, and to that thought do they add its freshest and most earned cumulations. 

"Such in its sphere, does the Republican aim to be. Whatever it has been in the past, 
no more shall its distinction be that of a partisan organ, blindly following the will of party 
and stupidly obeying its behests. It has its principles and purposes. But these are above 
mere party success. To these it will devote itself. Whenever and wherever the success of 
men or of parties can advance those principles and purposes, the Republican will boldly ad- 
vocate such success. Whenever men and parties are a stumbling block to the triumph of 
those principles, they will be as boldly opposed and denounced." 



recently been taken over by the Republican; and he is now treasurer of the 
Republican Company. Which, with Richard Hooker at the head of the 
editorial staff and McDonald M. Munroe on the advertising staff (as al- 
ready stated), leaves the Springfield Republican still under control of the 
family that has always guided its destinies. 

Mr. Bowles was interested in the work of the Connecticut Valley His- 
torical Society and a member of the organization. He was a member of 
Country Club, the Nayasset club, the Colony club, the Economic club, 
the Literary club, and the Twentieth Century Limited Club. He was much 
interested in matters educational, literary, civic, social and charitable. 

Mr. Bowles was very active in the Board of Trade of his home city, and 
was responsible for the initiative taken by Springfield in the "safe and sane" 
Fourth of July movement that has swept the country in the past few years. 
Influenced by a letter which Prof. Charles Eliot Norton of Harvard Un- 
iversity, wrote to the Republican, pleading for a rational form of celebration, 
he urged the president of the board of trade, William W. McClench to lead 
a movement for the reform. The result of this was an Independence Day 
Association, with Mr. Bowles on the executive committee, which inaug- 
urated the movement which has since been followed by numberless mu- 

He was given the honorary degree of A. M. by Amherst College, and 
the degree of L. H. D. by Olivet College in Michigan. He was one of the 

directors of the Associated Press. 

a. 3 


General Artemas Ward's Regiment, Lexington Alarm, April 19, 1775 
— General Artemas Ward's 1st Rregiment, Provincial Army, 
May-June, 1775 — Colonel Jonathan Ward's 32nd Reg- 
iment, Army of the United Colonies, 
July-December, 1775. 

By Frank A. Gardner, M. D. 

This regiment, composed largely of Worcester County men, also con- 
tained many from Middlesex and Hampshire Counties. Colonel Artemas 
Ward was elected to command it in the autumn of 1774. The following 
letter refers to the regiment a few months later; 

"Shrewsbury, February 27, 1775. 

At the desire of Mr. Pigeon I am now to advise you that I cannot Pro- 
vide a company as yet in my Regiment for the train by reason of a person 
on whom I had dependence failing me but shall provide one with all possi- 
ble expedition. Captain Job Cushing of Shrewsbury will receive the cannon 

In the preparation of this article the author is pleased to acknowledge the valuable 
assistance of Mr. Artemas Ward, of New York, a lineal descendant of Gen. Artemas Ward, 
and his biographer. 



& take proper care of them. An Instructor I cannot procure. There is 
a person in this town who understands the Exercise but has of late discovered 
such Sentiments in Political matters that I dare not trust him. 

I am with Esteem 

Your humble servant, 

Artemas Ward. 

March 17th The Cannon above mentioned are to be sent to Mr. Timo 

To David Cheever Esq." 

Geneial Ward's Regiment which responded to the Lexington alarm 
contained eleven companies, officered as followes; 

Luke Drury 
Edmund Brigham 
Aaron Kimball 
Samuel Wood 
Job Cushing 
Timothy Bigelow 
Seth Morse 
Ross W} T man 
Cyprian How 
William Brigham 
Seth Washburn 

First Lieutenants 
Nathl Sherman 

James Whipple 
Timo. Brigham 
Asa Rice 
Jonas Hubbard 
Hananiah Parker 
(Artillery Company) 

Amasa Granson 
Silas Gates 
William Watson 

Second Lieutenants 
Moses Herrington. 

Thos. Davison 
Seth Rice 
Abner Miles 
John Smith 
James Bowman 

Ens. Uriah Eager 
Ithamar Brigham 
Nathaniel Harwood 

The regiment marched on the alarm in two separate battalions under 
the command respectively of Lieut. Colonel Joseph Henshaw and Lieut. 
Colonel Jonathan Ward. The headings of the original minute rolls in the 
Massachusetts Archives would indicate that as least the last four of the 
above named companies were under the immediate command of Lieut. 
Coionel Jonathan Ward. This division of the regiment is explained in a 
letter dated May 23d, 1775, and quoted in full under that date. 

The field and staff officers of the regiment which answered the call of 
April 19th, were as follows; 


General Artemas Ward, Colonel 
Jonathan Ward, Lieut. Colonel 
Joseph Henshaw, Lieut. Colonel 
William Boyd, Quartermaster 
Edward Flint, Surgeon 
William Dexter, Surgeon's Mate." 

The date of entering service is shown to have been April 19, 1775, in 
the cases of Lieut. Colonel Jonathan Ward, Quartermaster William Boyd, 
Surgeon Edward Flint and Surgeon's Mate William Dexter, as that date 
is given in the pay roll of Colonel Jonathan Ward's Regiment, dated August 
1st, 1775. The following bill shows Lieut. Colonel Joseph Henshaw's offi- 
cial connection with the regiment: 

"Jos. Henshaw 

Lieut. Col. in Genl Ward's Regt. 
To Travel & Service in Consequence of the alarm on the 19th April, 
1775, bill £ 14:6:0." 

















































Fay . 








Capt. dishing 







































Major Bigelow 



































1 1 1 6 11 1 1 16 6 5 373 323 15 17 384 

Cambridge, May 15, 1775 
A report of General Ward's Regiment by Moses Wheelock, Adjut." 


"To the Honble, the Committee of Safety. 

We the Subscribers, beg leive to inform your Honors who those Gentle- 
men are that Would be agreeable for us to Serve under as field Officers viz. 
Jonathan Ward of Southboro, Colonel 
Edward Barns of Marlboro, Lieutenant Colonel 
Timothy Bigelow of Worcester, Major 

We are, Gentlemen, with the Greatest Esteem 

your friends & Humble Servants. 
Job Cushing Samuel Wood 

Josiah Fay Thos. Boyd in behalf of 

Daniel Barnes Captain Wheelock 

Luke Drury James Mellen 

Camp at Cambridge, Maye 20, 1775." 

A list of the field officers and Captains, May 23, 1775 is preserved in the 
archives as follows: 

"General Artemas Ward, Colonel 
Lt. Col. Joseph Henshaw 
Major Timothy Bigelow 


Josiah Fay Washburn 

Job Cushing Wheelock 

Danl Barnes Daniel Hubard 

Luke Drury Millens" 


A list of Field and Staff officers preserved in Colonel Henshaw's Orderly 
book, and dated May 23, 1775, is as follows: 

"Hon. Artemas Ward, Esq. Reg't ' 
Lt. Col. Jonathan Ward 
1st Major Edward Barns 
2nd Major Timothy Bigelow 
Adj't James Hart 
Qm't William Boyd 
Surgeon ." 

The total number of officers and privates given at this date was 440. 


"In Committee of Safety, Camb'ge May 23d 1775. 

To the Honble Provincial Congress at Watertown. 

There appears to be some considerable difficulty in the ad- 
justment of Genl Ward's Regiment so far as it respects the first that may 
have the Command under him in his Regiment, the circumstances we beg 
leave to lay before your Honours. 

Colo Joseph Henshaw came down Lieut, Colo, of a Minute Regiment 
under Genl. Ward & still expects to hold his command under Genl. Ward 
in sd Regiment upon the present Establishment as he was early applied 
to by this Committee for yt purpose. Col. Jonathan Ward came down 
Lieut. Col. under Genl. Ward of the standing Militia and likewise expects 
to hold his Command under Gen. Ward in the present Establishment, hav- 
ing given out inlisting orders to the Capts in sd Regiment & Seven Cap- 
tains in sd Regiment desire that Colo Ward may be appointed as appears 
by a Certificate under their hands. This Committee have applied to Gen- 
eral Ward to determine which of sd Colls should have the Command, but 
he declines to act in the affair. We therefor thot it proper to make this 
short representation to your Honours that you might in your wisdom put 
a speedy end to sd Controversy." 

The question was evidently settled in favor of Lieut. Colonel Jonathan 
Ward, as the following and all later returns prove. 

"A return of the Officers' Names and Number of Men under the Command 
of General Ward, their Chief Colonel 

Jonathan Ward of Southboro, Lieut, Col. 
Edward Barns of Marlborough, 1st Major 
Timothy Bigelow of Worcester, 2nd Major 

Capt. Josiah Fay of Southboro 

1st Lieut 

2nd Lieut 

No. of Men 31 


Capt. Seth Washburn of Scituate 1 

1st Lieut Joseph Livermore* 
2nd " Lowring Lincoln* 
No. of Men 33 

Capt. Job Cushing of Shrewsbury 1 

1st Lieut, Ezra Beaman Do 1 

2nd " Asa Rice Do 1 

No. of Men 57 

Capt. Daniel Barnes of Marlboro . 1 

1st Lieut. William Morse Do 1 

2nd " Paul Brigham Do 1 

No. of Men 49 

Capt. James Millen of Hopkinton 1 

1st Lieut. Abel Perry of Natick 1 

2nd " Aaron Abby of Hopkinton 1 

No. of Men 51 

s 1 

Capt. Luke 





Lieut. Asaph 













Capt. Jonas Hubbard of Worcester . 1 

1st Lieut John Smith Do 1 

2nd " William Gates Do 1 

No. of Men 50 

'Names written in. 


Capt. Sam'l Wood of Northborough 1 

1st Lieut. Timothy Brigham 1 

2nd Lieut. Thomas Sever 1 

No. of Men 42 

Capt. Moses Wheelock of Westborough 1 

1st Lieut. Thomas Bond 1 

2nd " Obediah Man* 1 

No. of Men 41 

James Hart, Adjutant 1 

William Boyd, Quarter Master 1 
Total number of men Including Non Commissioned 

Officers 417 

Total of Commissioned and field officers 23 

Total in the Whole 440 

Pr. James Hart, Adjutant 

May ye 24: 1115." 
(Written in the back) 

" Smith, Cap. 

Moses Kellog. Lieut. 
Elisha Liman, Ens. 

In Provincial Congress, Watertown, May 25, 1775 

"Resolved that commissions be given out to General Ward's Regiment 
agreeable to the within list: 

Sam. Freeman, Secy Pr. 
Moses Kellog, L. 
Elisha Liman, E. 
Lowring Lincoln, E. 
Obidah Man, E. 

Gen. (Col. Jona.) Ward's list." 
*Names written in. 



"In Provincial Congress Watertown May 25 1775 

"Resolved as the opinion of this Congress that Coll. Ward is best intitled 
to receive the Commission as Lieut. Col. of the regiment which was des- 
puted by Lieut. Col. Henshaw. 

Sam Freeman, Secy P. T." 

"A return of General Ward's Regiment. 

Capt. Josiah Fay 


Capt. Washbourne 


Capt. Gushing 


Capt. Barnes 


Capt. Miller 


Capt. Drury 


Capt. Hubbard 


Capt. Ward 


Capt. Wheelock 


May 27, 1775 

The following account of the work of this regiment in the Battle of Bun- 
ker Hill is given by Frothingham in his "History of the Seige of Boston." 

"This regiment was not ordered to Charlestown until late in the after- 
noon, and halted on its way; but a detachment from it pushed on and arrived 
in season to take part in the action. Lieutenant Colonel Ward, with a few 
troops, reached the rail fence; and Captains Cushing and Washburn, and an- 
other company fired upon the British after the retreat commenced from the 
redoubt. The remainder of the regiment, under Major Barnes, retreated 
before it got near enough to engage the enemy." On page 151 of the same 
work Frothingham gives the name of the other company above referred to 
as "Smith's" (commanded by Captain Eliakim Smith). 

Nathan Craige, of Captain Washburn's company, Jonathan Ward's 
regiment, — a man with "a clear and unimpaired memory and a character 
for honesty and integrity which was never impeached, gave to his state- 
ment the force of truth," made the following statement: 


"Before they arrived at the Neck, they were met by a man on horse- 
"back (said to be Dr. Church) who told the commander to halt his men; 
"that orders had been sent, that no more troops should go into the action. 
"Major Barnes, who was then in command, gave the order to halt. Where- 
"upon Capt. Washburn, stepping out of the column, addressing his men, 
"exclaimed in a loud voice, 'Those are Tory orders: I shan't obey them. 
"Who will follow me?' Even- man of his company at once left the column, 
"and passed on towards the hill. Capt. Wood of Northborough, with his 
"company, and, as appears by Mr. Frothingham's narrative, Capt. Cush- 
"ing also, left the regiment, and came into the action about the same time 
"that Capt. Washburn did." (See Washburn's "History of Leicester, pp. 

"Col. Ward, with his regiment, having nearly reached Charlestown 
"Neck, there met a gentleman (said to have been Dr. Benjamin Church, 
"one of the Committee of Safety, and who afterwards, proved himself a 
"traitor) coming from Charlestown on horseback, who inquired of Col. 
"Ward to what point he was marching his regiment. 'To the hill,' was the 
"answer. 'Have you not had counter orders?' 'I have not.' 'You will 
'have soon. Halt here.' The regiment advanced no further. Some few 
"found means to leave it and cross the neck, but soon met the Provincials 
"retreating." (Ward's "History of Shrewsbury, p. 55.) 

According to the statement given in Force 4 — II, 1628, one man in this 
regiment was killed and six wounded. The following note appears in the 
records of the Massachusetts House of Representatives, December 15, 1775 • 

"Leave was given to Colonel Ward to withdraw his Return of those 
men in General Ward's Regiment who lost their clothes in the battle of 
the 17th of June last." 

During May and June this regiment was known as General Artemas 
Ward's First Regiment in the Provincial Army, and when the army was re- 
organized in the early part of July, 1775, it became Colonel Jonathan Ward's 
. 32nd Regiment, in the Army of the United Colonies. The names of the 
Captains in this new regiment with the towns most largely represented 
appear in the following table: 


"Col. Jonathan Ward's Reg't. 


Samuel Wood, Northboro, Bolton, etc. 

James Mellen, Hopkinton, Natick. 

James Hubbard, Worcester. 

Moses Wheelock, Westboro, etc. Wrentham. 

Josiah Fay, Southboro, Worcester, Etc. 

Job Cushing, Shrewsbury, etc. 

Moses Kellogg, Hadley, Northfield, Amherst, etc. 

Seth Washburn, Leicester, Spencer, Oakham, etc. 

Daniel Barnes, Marlboro, Sudbury, etc. 

Luke Drury, Grafton, etc. 

"A Petition of Recruiting Officers in General Ward's Regiment pray- 
ing this Court to order payment to them of 4 pounds each, agreeable to a 
Resolve of the late Congress was read and committed to Deacon Rawson, 
Captain Dicks and Mr. Crane." 

Major Timothy Bigelow of this regiment was one of the staff officers 
under Arnold in the Quebec Expedition in September 1775, and one of the 
Companies in this Expedition was commanded by a Captain of this regi- 
ment, Captain Jonas Hubbard of Worcester. 

In the first plan of organization of that expedition, Major Timothy Bige- 
low was assigned to the second battalion, under Lieutenant Colonel Chris- 
topher Green, with Captain Hubbard's Company, one of five companies, 
under them. When the expedition was redivided at Fort Weston these 
line officers were in the second division and Captain Hubbard's Company 
was one of the three under them. Both of these officers were taken pris- 
oners at Quebec, and January 1, 1776, Captain Hubbard died of wounds re- 
ceived there. The remainder of the regiment was on duty at Dorchester 
through the latter part of the year. December 4, 1775, a company of men 
from Marlborough, Southborough, and Northborough enlisted in this regi- 
ment. Officers of this company were as follows: Captain Silas Gates and 
Lieutenants Elijah Bellows and Joel Rice. These officers were not commis- 
sioned until January 29, 1776. 


The officers of this regiment attained rank as follows, during the war: 
major general 1, colonel 5, lieut. colonel commandant 2, lieut. colonel 2, 
major 1, captain 25. first lieutenant 9, second lieutenant 9, surgeon 1, sur- 
geon's mate 1, chaplain 1 and adjutant (rank not given) 1 

The regiment was stationed at Dorchester nearly all of the time during 
the service of 1775. 

Forty-five of the commissioned officers of this regiment had seen service in 
the French and Indian War, one of whom has held the rank of Colonel, 
one Captain, one Lieutenant, five Ensigns, one Chaplain and one Sur- 
geon's Mate. 

General Artemas Ward's Regiment. 

The following table shows the strength of the regiment during the differ- 
ent months of the year: — 

Com. Off. Staff Non. Com Rank & File Total 

June 9, 1775 





July 23, 1775 


55 1 



August 18, 1775 






September 23, 1775 






October 17, 1775 






November 18, 1775 






December 30, 1775 






including corporals, fifers, drummers and privates. 
"("Including drummers and fifers. 

MAJOR-GENERAL ARTEMAS WARD was born in Shrewsbury 
Nov. 26, 1727. He was the son of Col. Nahum & Martha (Howe) Ward. 
He graduated from Harvard in 1748. 

On Jan. 28, 1755, he was commissioned Captain of the First Company 
of militia of Shrewsbury and Major in the "3rd regiment of militia in the 
county of Middlesex and Worcester. . . whereof Abraham Williams, 
Esq. is Colonel." 


Early in 1758 he was commissioned Major in the regiment of Col. Wm. 
Williams, raised "for the general invasion of Canada," and took part in 
Abercrombie's Ticonderoga campaign, being promoted to Lieut. Col. on 
July 3, 1758. 

On July 1, 1762 he became Colonel of the Third Regiment of militia 
of Middlesex and Worcester counties, continuing in its command until 1766, 
The episode of his removal is part of the political history of Massachusetts. 
It followed close upon his alignment against the prerogative party, in the 
political unrest fomented by the Stamp Act — and it was a summary action, 
put into effect without notice by the following communication delivered 
by a special mounted messenger: 

"Boston, June 30, 1766. 
To Artemas Ward, Esq. 

I am ordered by the Governor to signify to you, that he has thought 
fit to supersede your commisison of Colonel in the Regiment of Militia, 
lying in part in the County of Worcester and in part in the County of Middle- 
sex, and your commission is superseded accordingly. 

I am, Sir, your most 

Ob't and Humble Sv't 

Jno. Cotton, 

Dep,ty Sec,y." 

In return, Colonel Ward sent his compliments to the Governor as 
follows : 

"Tell him that I consider myself twice honored, but more in being super- 
ceded than in being commissioned, and that I thank him for this"(hold- 
"ing up the letter to the messenger) "since the motive that dictated it, is 
"evidence that I am, what he is not, a friend to my country. 17 

Gen. Ward did not again hold military command until the fall of 1774 
when his old regiment, throwing aside the crown commissions, elected him 
colonel — this action preceding by 24 days his election as General Officer 
by the Provincial Congress. 


Gen. Ward was early prominent in the civil life of his community. He 
became a Justice of the Peace at the age of 23 and held at various times 
many town offices — town and church "moderator," selectman, town clerk, 
assessor and treasurer. In 1757 he was elected representative to the Gen- 
eral Court — the first of 16 terms in that capacity. In 1762 he was appoint- 
ed Justice of the Court of Common Pleas for Worcester Co. 

In 1768 the House elected him to the Council — the outcome of a sen- 
sational contest with the supporters of Lieut. -Gov. Hutchinson- but his 
appointment was vetoed by Gov. Barnard. He was again elected to the 
Council in 1769 and again negatived He was elected for the third time. 
in 1770, finally being permitted to take his seat at the Board. He was con- 
tinuously re-elected thereafter until the days of the "mandamus" coun- 
cillors, immediately preceding the Revolution. 

He was a prominent member of the first and second Provincial Con- 
gresses (1774 & 1775), both of which appointed him second General Officer 
of the military forces of the province. 

Gen. Ward was in Shrewsbury at the time of the Lexington-Concord 
fight. Though ill and in bed, he lost no time in getting to Cambridge, 
arriving there, nearly 40 miles away, on the day following. Gen. Preble 
the First General Officer, being incapacitated, he immediately took the 
supreme military command. 

Gen. Ward was the responsible central figure of the hastily gathered, 
undisciplined, fluctuating army of militiamen which, then and there, commen- 
ced the siege of Boston — but he was without authority to enlist the men, 
pay them or hold them, except by the strength of the common-cause spirit 
and the force of his own personality and that of other military and civil- 
ian leaders. This was a very uncertain tenure — the men were ready to 
fight, but not inclined to sit down and wait for possible encounters, while 
their farm and other home duties called for attention. 

On April 23, Gen. Ward wrote to the Provincial Congress, imploring 
immediate action on the measures necessary for the organization of an army: 


"Headquarters April 23, 1775 

My situation is such that if I have not enlisting orders immediate- 
ly I shall be left all alone. It is impossible to keep the men here, except- 
ing something be done. I therefore pray that the plan may be completed 
and handed to me this morning, that you, gentlemen of the Congress, is- 
sue orders for enlisting men, I am gentlemen, yours, etc. 

Artemas Ward 
To the Hon. Delegates of the Provincial Congress." 

On the same day, the Provincial Congress — 

"Resolved, unanimously, that it is necessary for the defence of the 
"colony that an army of 30,000 men be immediately raised and established." 

Resolved, "That 13,000 men be raised immediately by this province." 

Resolved, "That the Committee of Safety be a committee to bring in 
"a plan for the establishment of the officers and soldiers necessary for the 
"men to be immediately raised, and that they sit immediately." 

Gen. Ward's commission as Commander-in-Chief, as follows, was 
finally prepared on May 18, amended on ~M&y 19 and delivered on May 20. 

"The Congress of the Colony of the Massachusetts Bay 

To the Hon. Artemas Ward, Esq., 


We, reposing especial trust and confidence in your courage and good 
"conduct, do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you, the said Arte- 
"raas Ward, to be General and Commander-in-chief of all the forces raised 
"by the Congress aforesaid, for the defence of this and the other American 

You are, therefore, carefully and diligently to discharge the duties 
"of a General, in leading, ordering and exercising the said Forces in Arms," 
"both inferior officers and soldiers; and to keep them in good order and 
''discipline, and they are hereby commanded to obey you as their General; 
"and you are yourself to observe and follow such orders and instructions 



"as you shall, from time to time, receive from this, or any future congress 
"or house of representatives of this colony, or the Committee of Safety," 
"so far as said committee is empowered by their commission, to order and 
"instruct you, for the defence of this and the other colonies; and to demean 
"yourself according to the military rules and discipline established by said 
"Congress, in pursuance of the trust reposed on you/ 

Despite the initial difficulties, and the lack of clothing, tents and am- 
munition, the siege was successfully maintained and the lines taken by Gen. 
Ward and his officers during those first weeks were, to a large extent, those 
held throughout the campaign. Gen. Washington, after his arrival and 
inspection in July, paid a tribute to the great amount of labor which the 
works represented and reported that "considering the great extent of lines 
"and the nature of the ground," the American lines were "as well secured 
"as could be expected in so short a time and with the disadvantages we 
"labour under." 

The history of Gen. Ward's command from April 20 to the coming of 
Washington is that of the Siege of Boston as related by many writers. So 
one may pass that intensely interesting period without comment except- 
ing for some reference to the battle of "Bunker Hill." 

It was on the 15th of June that the committee of Safety resolved that 
the position on "Bunker's Hill" in Charlestown be securely kept and de- 
fended, and also some hill or hills on Dorchester Neck be likewise secured, 
and made these and other recommendations to the Council of War. Gen- 
eral Ward proceeded to carry out these orders. 

The advisibility of occupying Bunker Hill was doubted by several of the 
leading officers of the Patriot Arm}-, including Generals Ward and Warren, 
chiefly because the army was not in condition in regard to cannon and pow- 
der "to maintain so exposed a post; and because it might bring on a general 
engagement which it was neither politic nor safe to risk." The active op- 
erations which General Gage had planned however, made it necessary to 
act quicker than they had desired. General Gage had fixed upon June 
18th as the date on which he expected to take possession of Dorchester 
Heights and the American Commander learned of this on June 13th. This 



brought about the order of the 15th to take possession of these posts. The 
occupation of Breed's Hill on the night of June 16\th and the battle of Bun- 
ker Hill on the day following was carried on under order given by General 
Artemas Ward as Commander-in-Chief of the Provincial Army from his 
headquarters at Cambridge. A detailed account of this battle has been 
given in connection with the history of the Regiment of Colonel William 
Prescott (See Massachusetts Magazine, Volume 1, Page 150 to 167). It 
is therefore unnecessary to repeat this story in detail in this connection. 
The wisdom of General Ward in remaining at his headquarters at Cam- 
bridge and directing the battle from there was clearly shown in the resulting 
movements of the days following the battle. While the patriots did not 
fully realize it at the time it was most fortunate that they withdrew from 
the Charlestown peninsula when they did, as the plans of Clinton would 
have undoubtedly been carried out on the 18th and the Patriots caught 
in a trap in the Charlestown peninsula. 

On that same day of the Bunker Hill battle, Gen. Ward was appointed 
First Major-General of the Continental Army. 

The dearth of supplies and the lack of discipline were not the only diffi- 
culties of Gen. Ward's position. He also had to contend with a jealous 
fear lurking in civilian breasts that the military power might grow beyond 
their control. 

On June 26, the Provincial Congress had 

"Resolved, that all the small arms that are or may be procured by the 
above order, be delivered to the Committee of Safety, at Cambridge, they 
to give receipts for the same to the person from whom they receive them; 
that the same be delivered out to such officers as shall produce orders there- 
for from the Hon. General Ward, they giving receipts for the same to the 
said Committee of Safety, to be returned in good condition, unless long in 
the service of the Colony." 

Accordingly, on June 28, Gen. Ward issued the following order: 

"Headquarters, Cambridge, June 28, 1775. The General orders that 
the commanding officer of each regiment make application to the Committee 
of Safety for so many fire-arms as their respective regiment stand in need 



of; each commanding officer to give his receipt for the fire-arms he may re- 
ceive, and the Committee of Safety are hereby ordered to deliver out arms 
to such commanding officers as make application to them for the same." 

The sentence, the "Committee of Safety are hereby ordered" acted like 
the proverbial red rag on the members of the committee and they imme- 
diately sent a hot protest to the Provincial Congress which embodied the 
Committee's "apprehension" 

"that it is of vast importance that no orders are issued by the Military 
or obeyed by the Civil powers, but only such as are directed by the Honble. 
Representative body of this People, from whom all Military & Civil power 
originates. And tho' this Comtee are satisfied that Genl. Ward has mis- 
understood said Resolve, & does not mean or intend to set up the military 
power above the Civil, yet, lest this order of the General's should be adduced 
as a precedent in future, we think it our indispensible duty to protest against 
the General's said order; notwithstanding which protest we also think it 
our indispensible duty to deliver said arms agreeable to the Spirit of said 
Resolve, & as the exigency of the public requires, & submit our conduct 
to the Honble. Congress." 

General Ward had the reputation of showing great concern for the com- 
fort and welfare of his men. This idea is well borne out in the following 
letter — which also shows his appreciation of the great danger to the Patriot 
cause from the exposed conditions of his men. 

"Cambridge, June 24, 1775. Gentlemen: If it is expected our lines 
be maintained & defended, it is absolutely necessary the men be covered, 
there are many men that are ordered to the line, which have nothing to cover 
them but the heavens. Men cannot be comfortable when they are both 
day and night without covering. I must begg & pray that some covering 
may be this day provided for them. If not the men will get their deaths 
& there will be a universal uneasiness in the camp, such uneasiness as I shall 
not be able to lay. 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your humble servant, 

Artemas Ward. 


P. S. If our men must be in the rain 

without covering <fc we should be attacked 
immediately after ye rain is over pray what 
are we to Expect? Destruction." 

When the Army was reorganized in July 1775 General Ward was placed 
in command of the first division, stationed "at Roxbury and its southern 
dependencies," consisting of two brigades, under Brigadier General Thomas 
and Brigadier General Spencer. To his division was entrusted the forti- 
fication of Dorchester Heights on the night of March 4 which resulted in 
the evacuation of Boston by the English. When the British left Boston 
on March 17, 1776, General Ward, with 5000 of the troops at Roxbury, 
made a triumphal entry through the gates of Boston Neck. 

After the British fleet had sailed away from Nantasket, General Wash- 
ington ordered his whole army to the South with the exception of five regi- 
ments which he left in and about Boston under command of General Ward. 
Two of these regiments were iu Boston, one at Dorchester Heights, one at 
Charlestown and one at Beverly. General Ward employed the troops in 
his command in throwing up works on Fort Hill in Boston, Charlestown 
Point, Castle Island, Noodle's Island and other places under the immediate 
supervision of Colonel Gridley. 

On March 22, 1776, Gen. Ward on account of continued ill health had 
tendered his resignation, but at the request of Washington and the repeated 
requests of the Continental Congress he remained in charge of the Eastern 
Department until March 20, 1777. 

In the meantime, he had been appointed Chief Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas for Worcester Co. (which post he filled for 22 years) and 
elected to the Executive Council of Massachusetts. 

After the resignation of his Continental command, Gen. Ward was during 
a considerable part of the time President of the Executive Council. 

In 1779 he was elected to the Continental Congress and reelected in the 
following year. He attended its sessions from June 14, 1780 to the same 


date of the following year, serving on the Board of War during his entire 
stay, as well as on a number of committees, including the "Grand Committee" 
to consider the plan to invest the United States with power to carry out 
the Articles of Confederation. 

He was again reelected to the Continental Congress, but declined be- 
cause of ill health. 

His constituents thereupon returned him as Representative to the Mass- 
achusetts House and the House elected him State Senator, but he refused 
the latter appointment. 

In 1786 he was made Speaker of the House and in the same year he fig- 
ured prominently in the support of the government during the disturbances 
of Shays's rebellion. On Sept. 5 occured one of the most picturesque inci- 
dents of his career when he harangued the rebels from the steps of the Wor- 
cester Court House, defying Shays's men to silence him though their bay- 
onets w r ere thrust through his clothes. 

In 1790 he was elected Representative to the second United States Con- 
gress and in 1792 was reelected to the third Congress. 

He died on Oct 28, 1800, aged 73 years. 

A contemporary, Dr. Belknap, described him as a "cool calm thoughtful 
man" and Frothingham truly remarks that he was a "true patriot, had many 
private virtues, and was prudent and highly esteemed." 

The following inscription appears on the family monument in the Shrews- 
bury cemetary: 

"Firmness of mind and integrity of purpose w r ere characteristic of his 
"whole life — so that he was never swayed by the applause or the censure of 
"man, but ever acted under the deep sense of duty to his country and ac- 
countability to his God. Long will his memory be precious among the 
"friends of Liberty and Religion." 

The "Ward Homestead" at Shrewsbury, Mass.— in which General Ward 
lived for nearly half a century and in which he died — is maintained as a 
memorial to him by his great-grandson, Mr. Artemas Ward of New York. 
It is open from May 15 to October 30 (except Sundays). Visitors, either 



as individuals or as delegates of patriotic societies, are always welcome. 
Its collections well repay a visit. There is no admission charge. 

Among recent additions to the Homestead is a full-size photo-print fac- 
simile of General Ward's Orderly Book — a tone of 350 large pages. Students 
of that all-important period of our national life will find its perusal of ab- 
sorbing interest. 

COLONEL JONATHAN WARD of Southborough was the son of Hez- 
ikiah and Abigail (Perry) Ward. He was a member of Colonel Timothy 
Brigham's (Southborough) Company, April 29, 1757, his name appearing 
on the alarm list. Later he was Captain of a Southborough Company in 
Colonel Artemas W r ard's Regiment in which Regiment Ezra Taylor was 
appointed Colonel in 1766. As Lieutentant-Colonel, he commanded the 
regular militia of General Artemas Ward which marched on the Lexington 
Alarm of April 19, 1775 as shown in the beginning of the historical section 
of this article. Lieutenant Colonel Ward was appointed field officer of 
the day, May 12, 1775. From May 25th to June 15, 1775 he was Lieut- 
enant Colonel in General Artemas Ward's 1st Regiment in the Provincial 
Army, and on the latter date was appointed Colonel. When the Army was 
reorganized in July he became Colonel of the 32nd Regiment, Army of the 
United Colonies and served through the year. During 1776 he was com- 
mander of the 21st Regiment, Continental Army. He was for many years 
a magistrate and died at Southborough July 7, 1791 aged 64 years. He 
is characterized in the "Ward Family" as "a valiant officer and efficient 
in discipline." 


Marlbourough, was the son of Edward and Grace Barnes and was born 
in that town March 2, 1743-4. He graduated from Harvard College in 1764. 
He was a member of the Middlesex County Convention in August 1774, 
and was a member of the First Provincial Congress from Marlborough 
in October 1774. He served on various committees in this Congress 
including one with Colonels Heath, Gerrish, Gardner, Thomas and 
others "to take into consideration a plan of military exercises proposed 



by Capt. Timothy Pickering." He was commissioned May 25, 1775 as 
First Major of General Artemas Ward's 1st Regiment, Provincial Army, 
and when Lieutenant Colonel Jonathan Ward was promoted to the rank 
of Colonel, in command of the Regiment, Major Barnes became Lieutenant 
Colonel and served through the year in this organization. May 10, 1776 
he was chosen Lieutenant Colonel of Colonel Ezekial How's 4th Middlesex 
Regiment, but he declined to serve and on June 26, 1776 Lieutenant Colonel 
Cyprian How was appointed in his stead. He died in Marlborough Nov- 
ember 16, 1803, aged 59 years. 

the son of Daniel and Elizabeth (Bass) Henshaw, and was born in 1727. 
He served as Lieutenant Colonel of General Artemas Ward's Regiment 
of minute men on the Lexington Alarm, April 19, 1775, as shown by the 
affidavit printed in the historical section of this article. The "minute men" 
being absorbed, he claimed the post of Lieut. -Colonel in the Gen. Artemas 
Ward Regiment opposing the claim of Jonathan Ward, who had commanded 
the regular or "standing" militia regiment under Gen. Ward. The foll- 
owing Act of Congress explains itself: 

"Resolved that the opinion of this Congress that Collo. Ward is first 
entitled to receive the commission as Lieut. Col. of the Regiment which 
right was desputed by Lieut. Col. Henshaw." 

He removed from Liecester to Shrewsbury about 1781, and died in the 
latter place March 19, 1794, aged 67 years. 

MAJOR TIMOTHY BIGELOW of Worcester was the son of Daniel 
and Elizabeth (Whitney) Bigelow. He was born in Worcester, August 
12, 1739. He was a blacksmith by trade. April 15, 1760 he enlisted for 
service in Canada in Captain Jonathan Butterfield's .Company. At that 
time he was twenty-one years old and a resident of Shrewsbury. He was 
one of the most active in the local committee of correspondence in Wor- 
cester and various secret meetings of patriotic bodies were held at his house. 
He was a member of the Provincial Congress 1774-5. On the Lexington 
alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched in command of a Company of Minute 


Men from Worcester in General Artemas Ward's Regiment. His name 
appears in the rank of Major in the list of officers of the Maine Guards dated 
May 8, 1775. On the 25th of that month he was commissioned Second 
Major in General Artemas Ward's First Regiment, Provincial Army. He 
continued to serve through the year under General Artemas Ward and Col- 
onel Jonathan Ward. He accompanied Arnold on his expedition up the 
Kennebec to Quebec. 

He was captured in the attack on Quebec and was held a prisoner until 
May 1776, when he joined Colonel Jonathan Ward's 21st Regiment, Con- 
tinental Army to which office he had been appointed the first of the year. 
Januar}- 1, 1777 he was appointed Colonel in command of the 15th Reg- 
iment, Massachusetts Line, and he did excellent service with this regiment 
until he retired January 1, 1781. His mansion house in Worcester was on 
Main Street opposite the Worcester County Court House, near Lincoln Square. 
He died March 31, 1790. A fitting monument was erected over his grave 
on the old Worcester Common in 1861 by his great grandson, Colonel Tim- 
othy Lawrence Bigelow. 

ADJUTANT JAMES HART of Northborough was engaged April 26, 
1775 to serve in that rank in General Artemas Ward's Regiment and he 
served through the year in that office, and during 1776 was Second Lieut- 
enant and Adjutant in Colonel Jonathan Ward's 21st Regiment, Contin- 
ental Army. On the Bennington Alarm in August 1777 he served as Ad-' 
jutant in Colonel Abijah Steam's 8th Worcester County Regiment com- 
manded by Major Ebenezer Bridge. 

QUARTERMASTER WILLIAM BOYD of Marlborough was the son 
of John and Ann (Glenn) Boyd, and was born in 1735. He came to Marl- 
borough when he was twelve years of age, and was adopted by a Mr. Stratton, 
later inheriting his estate. From April 3rd to November 8, 1758 he was 
a private in Captain Stephen Maynard's Company, Colonel William Will- 
iams's Regiment. The following year at the age of 23 he enlisted under 
the same Captain in Colonel Abraham William's Regiment. On the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as a private in Captain Daniel 



Barnes's Company, and May 25, 1775 was commissioned Quartermaster 
in General Artemas Ward's Regiment, serving through the year, under Gen- 
eral Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward. During 1776 he was First Lieut- 
enant and Quatermaster in Colonel Jonathan Ward's 21st Regiment, Con- 
tinental Army. He died August 5, 1817, aged 82 years. 

CHAPLAIN EBENEZER CLEAVELAND was the son of Josiah and 
Abigail (Paine) Cleaveland. He was born in Canterbury, Ct., December 
25, 1725, and graduated from Yale College in the class of 1748. He com- 
menced to preach at Sandy Bay (Rockport) in 1751. It is stated in the 
Cleaveland Genealogy that he served as Chaplain of a Massachusetts Reg- 
iment in the French and Indian War and that he was at Ticonderoga the 
following year. In 1768 his parish granted him a six month's leave of ab- 
sence on a tour to the Mohawks. He was appointed, with Ralph Wheelock 
to wait on Governor John Wentworth of New Hampshire "to know what 
encouragement they will give to accomplish the Indian school established 
by Mr. Wheelock." This finally resulted in the establishment of Dart- 
mouth College. May 19, 1775 he was engaged as Chaplain of Colonel Ward's 
Regiment. "June 11, 1775 the church halted after the blessing and voted 
that their pastor have the liberty to serve the army as Chaplain," and he 
was absent in the army most of the time during the W"ar. With Colonel 
Jonathan Ward he signed a spirited memorial at Dorchester, September 
27, 1775 "against secret enemies and Tories." He died at what is now Rock- 
port, July 4, 1805. The inscription on his monument states that "He was 
a sincere friend to his country, a firm supporter of the doctrine of free grace, 
and even declared in his last moments that they were the ground of his hope 
of immortal glory." 

SURGEON EDW^ARD FLINT was evidently the man who served as 
Surgeon's Mate in Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment from March 27th 
to December 17, 1755, April 19. 1775 he was engaged as Surgeon in Gen- 
eral Artemas Ward's Regiment and he served at least until August 1st and 
probably through the year. His place of residence is not given in any of 
the above records of service. 





SURGEON MATE'S WILLIAM DEXTER of Shrewsbury was en- 
gaged to serve in that rank in General Artemas Ward's Regiment April 19, 
1775 and he served through the year under General Artemas Ward and 
Colonel Jonathan Ward. He died December 4, 1785. 

CAPTAIN DANIEL BARNES of Marlborough was the son of Daniel 
and Zeruiah (Eager) Barnes. He was born July 19, 1736. From April 
6th to November 30, 1759 he was a private in Captain Stephen Maynard's 
Company and in the following year served as Ensign under Captain Will- 
iam Williams from June 10th to December 2nd. April 19, 1775 he marched 
as Captain of a Company from Marlborough on the Lexington alarm, and 
on the 26th of that month enlisted as Captain in General Ward's Regiment, 
serving through the year. From January 1, 1777 to May 6, 1779 he was 
in Colonel Timothy Bigelow's 15th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. 

CAPTAIN EDMUND BRIGHAM of Westborough (also given Graf- 
ton) was evidently the man whose name appeared without date during the 
French and Indian War, as one of the soldiers of Southborough. On the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Captain of a Company of 
Minute Men in General Ward's Regiment. He served twenty-two and 
a half days. April 5, 1776 he was commissioned Captain of the 3d Com- 
pany in Colonel John Golden's 6th Worcester County Regiment, and in 
August 1777 marched as Captain of a company of this same Regiment, under 
Colonel Job Cushing to reinforce the Northern Army. The company was 
ordered "to be mounted if possible." February 10, 1779 he sent a petit- 
ion as Captain of the 3d Company, 6th Worcester County Regiment "ask- 
ing to be allowed to resign on account of injuries received by a kick from 
a horse; granted in Council February 11, 1779." He was selectman of Marl- 
borough in 1779, 1787, 1788, 1791-3. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM BRIGHAM of Marlborough was probably the 
son of Joel and Mary (Church) Brigham who was born in Marlborough 
March 20, 1742. His name appears in the list of men in Colonel Timothy 
Brigham's Southborough Company, April 29, 1757. On the Lexington 


alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as Captain of a Company in General 
Artemas Ward's Regiment, serving 17 days. 

CAPTAIN JOB CUSHING of Shrewsbury was the son of the Rev- 
erend Job and Mary Cushing. He was born in Shrewsbury, January 1, 
1727-8. He was a private in Captain Artemas Ward's 1st Company of 
Militia of Shrewsbury in March, 1757. 

At a meeting of the Worcester County Convention, January 26, 1774, Cap- 
tain Job Cushing was a member of a committee "to take into consideration 
a plan for this county to adopt respecting the non-consumptive covenant 
of the Continental Provincial Congress and report thereon." On the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Captain of a Company of 
Minute Men in General Artemas Ward's Regiment. April 28, 1775 he 
was engaged to serve in the same rank in General Artemas Ward's 1st. Reg- 
iment, Provincial Army, and served under General Ward through the year. 
January 12, 1776 he was appointed 1st Major of Colonel John Golden's 
6th Worcester County Regiment, receiving his commission March 23, 1776, 
From another record in the archives, not dated, it appears that he also served 
for a time as Major in Colonel Nathan Sparhawk's 7th Worcester County 
Regiment. June 16, 1777 he was commissioned Colonel of the 6th Worcester 
County Regiment, and July 25, 1777 was engaged as Colonel to serve with 
his regiment in Colonel Warner's Brigade on the Bennington Alarm, serving 
until October 12, of that year. He died in Shrewsbury on April 16, 1808. 
aged 80 years. 

CAPTAIN LUKE DRURY of Grafton was the son of Captain Thomas 
and Sarah (Clarke) Drury. He was born in Grafton, March 11, 1737. 
March 25 x 1757 his name appears on the alarm list in Captain Samuel War- 
ren's Grafton Company. At the Worcester Convention, August 30, 1774, 
he was appointed with Captain Joseph Henshaw, Mr. Timothy Bigelow 
and others on a committe of nine "to take into consideration the state of 
public affairs, etc." and he served on other committees in the same conven- 
tion. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he was Captain of a Com- 
pany of Minute Men in General Ward's Regiment, and four days later was 


engaged to serve under that officer in the Provincial Army. He served under 
General Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward through the year. May 28, 
1775 the Committee of Safety presented a number of guns to Captain Drury 
for the use of his Company. A number of men belonging to his Company 
were given permission, June 14, 1775, to join "such regiment as shall appear 
of major part of that company are in favor of when called upon for that 
purpose." From July 18th to December 4, 1781 he was Lieutenant Col- 
onel Commandant of a regiment detached for service at West Toint. He 
officiated in his town as constable, deputy sheriff, collector, assessor, select- 
man, representative and moderator. He died in Marlborough, April 1, 
1811 at 74. "He was possessed of good natural abilities with strong power 
of mind, little improved by education," according to Pierce in his History 
of Grafton. 

CAPTAIN JOSIAH FAY of Southborough was born in W T estborough 
about 1732. As a resident of Southborough he served as centinel in Captain 
William Flint's Company, Colonel Winslow's Regiment from May 31st. 
to September 15, 1754. This service was "in defense of the Eastern Front- 
tier." From April 14th to December 13, 1755 he was a Sergeant in Cap- 
tain John Taplin's Company on the Crown Point Expedition and in the 
following year he served as Lieutenant under the same officer, also in an 
expedition to Crown Point. August 31, 1756 he was at Fort William Henry 
as Lieutenant in Captain John Taplin's Company, Colonel Jonathan Bag- 
ley's Regiment. April 29, 1757 he was Lieutenant in Colonel Timothy Brig- 
ham's Southborough Company. He was a member of the Worcester County 
Convention in January 1774 and served on a committee "to take into con- 
sideration, the conduct of certain persons inimical to their country." Feb- 
ruary 1, 1775 he was a member from Southborough of the Second Provincial 
Congress. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he commanded a com- 
pany of Minute Men, and April 24, was engaged as Captain in General Ward's 
First Regiment Provincial Army, and he served under General Ward, and 
Colonel Jonathan Ward through the year. During 1776 he was Captain 
in Colonel Jonathan Ward's 21st Regiment Continental Army, and served 


until his death, on the 8th of August of that year. In the vital records of 
Southborough he is called Major. 

CAPTAIN SILAS GATES of Marlborough was the son of Simon and 
Sarah (Woods) Gates. He was born in that town February 3, 1727. On 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as First Lieutenant in 
Captain William Brigham's Company, General Artemas Ward's Regiment 
and served 12 days. December 4, 1775, he was engaged Captain of a com- 
pany of men from Marlborough, Southborough and Xorthborough, which 
joined Colonel Jonathan Ward's Regiment and served during that month 
and until the last of January. January 29, 1776, he was commissioned 
Captain in Colonel Jonathan Ward's 21st Regiment, Continental Army. 
Josiah Stone one of the committee from Middlesex County, in a letter to 
the county, dated September 5, 1776, stated that he had raised 45 men 
from the town of Framingham, who had marched July 29, 1776 under com- 
mand of Colonel Jonathan Reed (6th Worcester County Militia). He re- 
ceived his commission in this service July 25, 1776 and he served until Nov- 
ember 30th of that year. He died August 25, 1793. 

CAPTAIN CYPRIAN HOW of Marlborough was the son of John 
and Thankful (Bigelow) How. He was born in Marlborough, March 29, 
1726. He kept a public house in that town. He was Captain of a Company 
of Minute Men which marched to Cambridge on the Lexington alarm, ser- 
ving until his company was dismissed May 4, 1775. February 15, 1776, he 
was commissioned Second Major in Colonel Henry Gardner's 4th Middle- 
sex County Regiment but declined to serve, and June 26, 1776 was com- 
missioned Lieutenant Colonel in the same Regiment. In a return dated 
December 5, 1776, his name appears in a list of officers in the 1st Middle- 
sex County Regiment, commanded by Colonel Samuel Thatcher. February 
26, 1779 he was commissioned Colonel of the 4th Middlesex County Regi- 
ment, and he held that rank until his discharge, October 31, 1780. The 
regiment was stationed during the time in Rhode Island. 

CAPTAIN JONAS HUBBARD of Worcester was the son of Daniel 
and Dorothy Hubbard, and was born May 21, 1739. He, with Mr. Edward 


Crafts, were a committee appointed to convey complaint of the selectmen 
of the town of Worcester against Samuel Paine and William Campbell, May 
10, 1775. He served as First Lieutenant in Captain Timothy Bigelow's 
Company of Minute Men of Militia in Colonel Artemas Ward's Regiment 
which marched in the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775 
he was engaged as Captain in General Artemas Ward's regiment, and he 
served through the year under General Artemas Ward and Colonel Jonathan 
Ward. He commanded a company in Arnold's expedition against Quebec, 
said company being assigned to the 2nd Battalion under Lieutenant Colonel 
Christopher Green, and in the 2nd Division under Lieutenant Colonel Green 
after the reorganization at Fort Weston in storming Quebec. December 
31. 1775 he "received a severe wound beneath the ramparts of the lower 
town; refusing to be removed he perished in the snow storm which raged 
with unusual violence." 

CAPTAIN MOSES KELLOGG of Hadley was the son of Lieutenant 
Nathaniel and Sarah (Preston) Kellogg. He was born in Hadley in 1733. 
He was probably the man of that name who served as a private in Cap- 
tain Ezra Clapp's Westfield Company of the South Hampshire County 
Regiment on the Fort William Henry alarm of 1757. On the Lexington 
alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Lieutenant in Captain Eliakim Smith's 
Company, and April 27th enlisted as First Lieutenant under the same Cap- 
tain in General Artemas Ward's Regiment. In a company return (pro- 
bably October 1775) his name appears as Captain in Colonel Jonathan Ward's 
Regiment. In August 1776 his commission was ordered as First Lieutenant 
in Captain Oliver Lyman's Company, Colonel Nicholas Dike's Regiment, 
formed for the defence of Boston. From September 23rd to October 18, 
1777 he was Captain in Colonel Elisha Porter's 4th Hampshire County Regi- 
ment. He served as one of the selectmen of Hadley in 1775 & 1777. He 
died in Hadley May 28, 1815, aged 82 years. 

CAPTAIN AARON KIMBALL of Grafton was the son of Richard 
and Sarah (Burley) Kimball. He was born in Norwich, Connecticut, 
February 18, 1729-30. His name appears on the training band list of Graf- 
ton, March 23, 1757. In August of that year he was a private in Lieutenant 



James Whipple's Company, Colonel Artemas Ward's Regiment, which 
marched on the Fort William Henry alarm, from Grafton to Westfield. 
He commanded a company of militia in General Artemas Ward's Regiment, 
which marched on the alarm of April 19, 1775. April 17, 1776 his com- 
mission was ordered as Captain of the 1st (Grafton) Company in Colonel 
John Golden's 6th Worcester County Regiment. Later he was Captain 
of a company from Grafton in the Regiment under Colonel Nathan Spar- 
hawk, and marched to New York to assist General George Clinton. The 
muster roll of the regiment is in the archives of New York State and shows 
service in New Jersey in January 1777. He died in Grafton, November 
20, 1807 in his 78th year. 

CAPTAIN JAMES MELLEN was the son of Thomas and Elizabeth 
Mellen and was born in Hopkinton, June 10, 1739. He served in Captain 
Tyler's Company; Colonel William William's Regiment in 1758. In the 
Massachusetts Archives, Volume 97, page 152A, Ensign James Mellen 
appears as "Cominshears in Conll Jones Regiment," under General Amherst 
From March 31st to November 30, 1759 he was an Ensign in Captain Leonard 
Whiting's Company, Brigadier General Ruggles's Regiment, in an expe- 
dition to Crown Point. He was a member of the First Provincial Congress 
from Hopkinton in October 1774. April 25, 1775 he was engaged as Cap- 
tain in General Artemas Ward's 1st Regiment, Provincial Army, and he 
served under General Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward through the year. 
January 1, 1776 he became Captain in Colonel Jonathan Ward's 21st Regi- 
ment, Continental Army, and on the 15th of August, 1776, was promoted 
to Major of that Regiment. November 1, 1776 he was commissioned to 
Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel James Wesson's 9th Regiment, Massachusetts 
Line. January 1, 1781 he was transferred in the same rank to Colonel 
William Shepherd's 4th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and in 1782, served 
for a time at least as Lieutenant Colonel Commandant of Colonel Shepherd's 
Regiment. January 7, 1783 he was appointed Lieutenant Colonel Comman- 
dant of the 3rd Regiment, Massachusetts Line, and he served to June 3, 
1783. In the "History of Milford" it is stated that he "returned home from 
the war worn out in health, poor in property and cheered only by wordy 
honors, and promises of compensation never to be fulfilled. All this finally 


broke down his spirits. He became sore under the sense of his wrongs and 
the sickness of 'hope deferred/ His last days were virtually those of an 
insane man, breaking out into occasional wild freaks, which his friends could 
only lament and mitigate, but not prevent." He died in Mendon, September 
27, 1812, aged 73 years, and his grave in the old Cemetery in that town is 
marked with a stone and the S. A. R. marker. 

CAPTAIN SETH MORSE of Westborough was the son of Seth Morse. 
From August 19, to December 13, 1755, as a resident of Hopkinton he was 
a private in Captain Benjamin Wood's Company on an expedition against 
Crown Point. Later his name appeared in the list of men in Captain John 
Jones's (Hopkinton West) Company, on the alarm list. On the Lexing- 
ton alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as Captain of a Company of Mil- 
itia in General Artemas Ward's Regiment. His name appears in a "list 
of officers of the Massachusetts Militia which reinforced the army who joined 
Col. J. Ward." He was commissioned January 29, 1776. His commission 
as Captain in the 6th (Marlboro) Company in Colonel John Golden's 6th 
Worcester County Regiment of Militia was ordered in Council in 1776. 

.CAPTAIN ELIAKIM SMITH of Hadley was born about 1735 or 6. 
He served from September 15th to December 10, 1755 in Captain Nathaniel 
Dwight's Company, Colonel Seth Pomeroy's Regiment. November 21st 
of that year he was reported as sick in camp at Lake George. From 
September 13th to November 30, 1756, he was in Capt. -Lieutenant John 
Burk's Company on a Crown Point Expedition. From April 10th to May 
30, 1758 he served as Corporal in Captain Elisha Pomeroy's Company, Col- 
onel William Williams's Regiment. In the following year from April 25th 
to October 30th, he was a private in Captain Elijah Smith's Company, Col- 
onel Israel Williams's Regiment. His age was given as 23 years, and his 
residence as Hadley. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched 
as Captain of a company from Hadley. April 27, 1775 he was engaged 
as Captain in General Artemas Ward's 1st Regiment, Provincial Army, 
and he served under that officer and his successor Colonel Jonathan Ward, 
until his death which occurred at Watertown, August 27, 1775, age 40 

{To be continued.*) 

J S3 

Ridiculing as absurd the statement of Secretary Bryan that: "If this 
country needed a million men. and needed them in a day, the call would 
go out at sunrise and the sun would go down on a million men in arms;" 
and also the statement of Andrew Carnegie that: "Our nation is unique 

in an important respect. . Most Americans own guns and when 

they shoot can hit the thing at which they shoot," — the editor of the The 
New Republic goes on to declare that this idea that Americans have a natu- 
ral genius for shooting and can lick any thing on earth is due to the fact 
that our political thought and mass-thinking has been influenced by sheer 
mythology; a flattering tradition has usurped the place of fact: 

"We have all been taught in our school histories that the minute-men 
of Lexington and Concord performed prodigies of valor. We have been 
taught to revere their statues and to recall them as we ascended the Bunker 
Hill Monument. We have come to love the thought of the embattled far- 
mer rising up over night to throw off the hated yoke of British tyranny. 
We played our boyish war games in that belief, just as we still built upon 
it our lackadaisical militia. Emotionally we are convinced that all an Ameri- 
can citizen need do is to take down his gun and shoot the presumptuous 
invader of our shores. 

"Let us examine the historical truth that underlies this myth. What, 
as a matter of fact,"- were the minute-men of the Revolution? They were 
citizens-at-large whom the Provincial congresses and the Committees of 
Safety of 1774 instructed to keep their powder-horns filled and hold them- 


selves in readiness to shoot Britishers. They had had no military drill, 
and no practice except in shooting Indians and small game. They went 
down to defeat after defeat, they were chronically under-supplied with am- 
munition, they were hardly more than an armed rabble, until men like La- 
fayette and DeKalb took them in hand and until untold and unnecessary 
hardships turned them into seasoned troops. They came well within the 
modern definition of snipers and franctireurs. A modern army of invasion 
would give short shrift to such road-side amateurs. All that has been for- 

"Will the myth of the minute-men ever be shaken? It probably did not 
become firmly intrenched in the American imagination until the war of 1812. 
At that time many veterans of the Revolutionary War were still alive who 
must have had the personal confidence that they could take on any dozen 
Britishers single-handed. How disastrous the myth was then has never 
been appreciated by us. It has conquered most of our historians. It is 
almost impossible to pick up any school history and get a realistic sense 
of the defeats we sustained, of the ignominious burning of Washington, 
of our utter demoralization. We think only of a series of brilliant naval 
victories, and of Jackson's comfortable victory at New Orleans over half- 
hearted British troops, just as we assume that it was we who won the battle 
of Bunker Hill. And who now remember the bloody rabble of Bull Run 
or the more recent shame of Tampa 9 That is the nether side of the myth 
It has become an arch concealer of facts, has inured us to what is really a 

monstrous callousness." 


The New Republic has made such a good case against over-confidence 
and unpreparedness that we would not criticise one lone point of mis-state- 
ment — which may at worst be only a species of hyperbole; a slightly ex- 
aggerated figure of speech. But this subject is so close to the especial in- 
terests of the Massachusetts Magazine, that we would like to call attention 
to the abundant testimony that exists to show that the militia of Wash- 
ington's army and especially the minutemen of Bunker Hill were not wholly 
without training in the art and science of war. 

From the very earliest time the " training bands" were an important 
part of the life of every large town. Almost every town history speaks 
of them and their work of repelling Indian attacks. 



In the decades immediately preceding the Revolutionary conflict, hun- 
dreds of Massachusetts men saw service in the French and Indian wars. 
Dr. Frank A. Gardner has called especial attention to the French and 
Indian wars as a trinaing school for the patriots. On page 46, Vol. Ill 
of the Massachusetts Magazine he said: 

"Careful study of the regimental histories which have been presented 
in these pages during the past two years will make clear some very interest- 
ing lessons. Some of these like the state of preparedness of the Patriots 
on the Lexington alarm, have already been emphasized in special articles. 
The value of the French war as a training school for the Patriots must have 
been apparent to very many readers of the biographical sketches of the regi- 
mental officers in Colonel Bridge's Regiment, whose story is told in this 
number. At least twenty-two out of a total number of forty-five officers saw 
service in the campaigns against the French and Indians. It is impossible 
for us to overestimate the value of this training to our American soldiery. 
Warfare of any kind would have given them valuable experience, but they 
were not taught how to fight on general principles alone but were given 
specific instruction in British methods b}- many of England's ablest officers. 
English tenacity to accepted methods of warfare is proverbial and accord- 
ingly the American officers were repeatedly called upon to oppose the 
identical methods and movements which they had been taught thoroughly 
but a few years previously. 

"When we consider that the Americans in addition to possessing this know- 
ledge of British military methods were superior marksmen, as many of them 
had been hunters through life, we can readily understand why the Patriots 
were successful in so many engagements. The importance of the breast- 
work has already been dwelt upon in these columns and it is probably quite 
true that the Patriots went into battle in close order by columns much less 
frequently than their opponents. The present method of advancing in open 
order has been found far superior to the old formation. In the regiments 
to be taken up during the coming year it will be seen that the percentage 
of French war veterans among the officers will be even larger than in the 
case of those above cited." 

When one-half of the officers of a regiment were men who had seen active 
service under British army officers, it is preposterous to think of their or- 



ganization as "hardly more than an armed rabble. " The other regiments 
also show a good representation of veterans. 

And, while admitting the ignominy of our unpreparedness in the war 
of 1812, let us remember that it was the raw troops of the militia, and not 
the established army of that day, who won the laurels in the war of 1812. 
The most disgraceful defeats were borne by the regular troops; and, not only 
Jackson's "comfortable victory" at New Orleans, but all the achievements 
on the American side, in that war, were made by raw militiamen — such as 
the editor of the New Republic classifies as "roadside amateurs." 

A bronze statue of Wendell Phillips, by Daniel Chester French, was 
unveiled in the Boston Public Garden, July 6th. The ceremony of unveil- 
ing and dedication was accompanied by exercises arranged by the Wendell 
Phillips Memorial Association, the speakers being William Dexter Brigham, 
Acting-mayor George W. Coleman, Frank B. Sanborn, William Monroe 
Trotter and Michael J. Jordan. Three descendants of William Lloyd Garri- 
son were present — Francis J. Garrison his only surviving son, William Lloyd 
Garrison, his great grandson, and John T. Phillips, Jr., the abolitionists great- 
great nephew, who "lifted" the veil. 



Published bythe Salem Press Co. Salem, Mass. US A 

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5ty? iflassarljusptts i$tan.astm> 

A Quarterly Magazine Devoted to History, Genealogy and Biography 


Deerfield, Mass. 

Salem, Mass. 


Salem, Mass. 

Bangor, Me. 

Salem, Mass. 

Issued in January, April, July and October. Subscription, $2.50 per year, Single copies, 75c. 


OCTOBER, 1915 

NO. 4 

(fimttnttfi of this SJssu? 

Governor David I. Walsh .... George F. Babbitt . 159 

Two Popular Governors: Long and Guild . . .A. H. L. . 167 

An Old Boston Bookseller . . . .Frank Jones Wilder . 177 

General Artemas Ward's and Colonel 

Jonathan Ward's Regiments . . Frank A.Gardner, M.D. . 185 

Criticism and Comment . 

. 201 

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I i 






s>.. \ 


By George F. Babbitt 

The office of Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, using 
the full title given it by our constitution, possesses a distinction of its own, 
in the estimation of our people. Other commonwealths and states hold 
their chief executive magistrates in high esteem, as their merits warrant, 
but the honor attaching to the position in this state seems to possess some- 
thing of a transcendent lustre. This local pride is to be accounted for, not 
by any real or assumed preeminence of Massachusetts over the other forty- 
seven states of the union, but for more obvious reasons — chiefly sentimental. 
These have their origin and inspiration in the fine traditions of the office 
and in the famous men who, in their turn, have discharged its functions 
since the establishment of the Commonwealth under the constitution, nearly 
a century and a half ago. The roll contains many illustrious names, famous 
in history, beginning with John Hancock, James Bowdoin and Samuel Adams, 
and continuing with those of other worthy persons, including Christopher 
Gore, Elbridge Gerry, Edward Everett and John A. Andrew, not to men- 
tion later occupants of the office. The good fame of these former Gov- 
ernors is not confined to Massachusetts or to New England. It is as wide 
as the nation itself, and in some instances may be said to be world wide. 

It is sometimes said that our later governors are not the preeminently 
distinguished men such as formerly graced the office. This criticism may 




be true, or may be popularly believed to be true, in a certain sense. People 
are ever prone to be laudators of times past at the expense of times present, 
as well as of old-time functionaries, when compared with their own con- 
temporaries. They refuse to look at the new moon out of reverence for 
that ancient institution, the old one. Making due allowance for this habit 
of magnifying things at a distance, it can still be truly said that in the long 
list of our Massachusetts Governors there are very few whose possessors 
have not contributed to the welfare and renown of the state, and who have 
not helped to maintain the high traditions attaching to the office. There 
may have been occasional lapses from this high standard, due chiefly to 
fitful and capricious conditions in the body politic, but these aberrations 
have been only sporadic and transitory and have been spontaneously correct- 
ed at the earliest opportunity. Our people, as a whole, prefer that only 
honorable and high-grade men shall occupy the gubernatorial office. 
. To David Ignatius Walsh, our present Governor, son of James and 
Bridget Walsh, belongs the unique distinction of being the first and 
only Irish-American and Roman Catholic occupant of that high office in 
Massachusetts. Time was in the history of the state when such a selection 
would have been reckoned practically impossible notwithstanding the article 
• in our constitution which provides that no citizen of this commonwealth 
shall be discriminated against on account of the religion he professes, so 
long as he worships God according to the dictates of his own conscience. 
The letter and spirit of this constitutional provision have not always been 
observed by our people in choosing their high official representatives. It 
was but little more than half a century ago that a governor of Massachusetts 
was elected on a Know-Nothing platform to the essential planks of which 
he earnestly and vociferously subscribed. It is creditable to the good sense 
and good will of the people of the state that they very soon came to regret 
this action and they corrected their mistake in the next ensuing election. 

Times and conditions have changed in Massachusetts and elsewhere 
since Governor Gardners' day. Not only is there greater and wider tolera- 
tion as to religious creeds and less observance of racial distinctions among 
people of the protestant faith, but our Roman Catholic population has grown 


tremendously meanwhile, particularly here in Massachusetts. The change 
of popular sentiment in the aggregate is due chiefly to the growth of re- 
ligious tolerance, and it is largely by reason of this growth that Governor 
Walsh has been twice elected to the office he now holds and is a likely can- 
didate for a third term. It may be safely affirmed that Governor Walsh 
does not owe his nomination or his election to the fact that he is a Roman 
Catholic. It would be more accurate to say that he was nominated for 
the office and twice elected to it despite this assumed objection to his can- 
didature. It may reasonably be said, furthermore, that during his two 
years incumbency of the office he has discharged its difficult, delicate and 
responsible duties in a manner to disarm and wholly remove any fears or un- 
easiness that may for a time have been entertained by those who formerly 
objected to his candidature on account of his religious creed. 

It is the testimony of those who are in any way competent to speak on 
the subject that the fact that Governor Walsh is a Roman Catholic has 
had a no more controlling or directing influence under his administration 
than the circumstance that his predecessors have been Protestants con- 
trolled or directed their official course. There is no lack of concrete evi- 
dence to establish the correctness of this statement. It has not been left 
to be inferred. It has been specifically and authoritatively demonstrated 
in the executive office. On one notable occasion when the selection of a 
suitable man for appointment to an important place, at Governor Walsh's 
disposal, was under consideration, a friend of one of the candidates for the 
place called upon the Governor and urged the selection of this candidate 
for several reasons, among which was the particularly mentioned fact that 
this candidate belonged to "our church." Thereupon, the Governor brought 
his fist down upon his desk and emphatically rebuked this super-servicable 
friend who was informed that such a recommendation was entirely out of 
place and would receive no consideration in this case or in any other of like 
character. That the Governor meant what he said in this instance was de- 
monstrated by the fact that the candidate thus urged did not receive the 


This has been the rule adhered to by Governor Walsh, not only in the 
making of his appointments, but in the discharge of all the varied func- 
tions of his office. Considerations of creed or race do not influence his action. 
In his last inaugural address he devoted a special paragraph to the propriety 
and importance of making adequate and proper arrangements for the 
approaching Pilgrim celebration, and his recommendations on this subject 
have been followed. It cannot be affirmed that his appointments or his 
policies as set forth in his recommendations to the Legislature and to other 
bodies have been wholly free from politically partisan bias. Under present 
political conditions here in Massachusetts and elsewhere a strictly non- 
partisan course of conduct can hardly be demanded or expected of a Gov- 
ernor elected by a political party on a party platform. Having been elected 
as a Democrat, Governor Walsh has apparently felt it his duty, as well as 
his privilege, to appoint representative Democrats to office and to give pre- 
ference to them, other considerations being equal. He has generally follow- 
ed the same course in other matters where political questions have been 
involved. It cannot truthfully be said, however, that he has wilfully or 
deliberately placed partisan considerations before those of the public wel- 
fare. Governor Walsh may have made mistakes in some of his appoint- 
ments as well as in some of his policies. Like all public officials of what- 
ever political persuasion or stripe he is human and his shortcomings have 
probably not been any more frequent or flagrant than those of his prede- 
cessors. People not of Governor Walsh's political faith may fairly and 
properly object to him. Such opposition is legitimate. It is one thing 
to object to a public official on account of his politics. It is quite another 
thing to object to him on account of his religious creed, his race or other 
similar cause. 

Governor Walsh came to his present office by the route or stepping- 
stones which have come to be reckoned as familiar in Massachusetts politics. 
Having served acceptably as Lieutenant-Governor he succeeded to the 
higher office by what may be termed the right of political inheritance, as 
many former Governors of Massachusetts had done before him. It is not re- 
corded that he was a particularly pushful or insistent candidate for promo- 


tion. He appears to have been the spontaneous and practically unanimous 
choice of his party in each and all of the campaigns in which he has been a 
candidate. Previous to his election to the Lieutenant-Governorship he had 
served the state in the lower branch of the Legislature where he won the 
favor of his associates not so much by any exceptional efficiency as a legis- 
lator as by his practical common sense and his generally agreeable manners 
and even temperament. Among his associates general!}' he was credited 
with having a level head on his shoulders. Possessing in addition a fine pres- 
ence, a genial nature and a marked talent for good fellowship as well as a 
deserved reputation for thorough honesty and clean methods he has enjoy- 
ed the respect and friendship of his associates without distinction of party. 
Previous to his service in the Legislature he had been a successful lawyer 
in his home town of Clinton and in Fitchburg, having been admitted to 
the bar in 1897, after being graduated at Holy Cross College and at the 
Boston University law school. He served as city solicitor of Fitchburg 
while he was in his twenties, showing thus early in his career a marked ap- 
titude for his profession and for dealing with public affairs that is not 
uncommon among young men of his blood. 

It is a notable fact that Governor Walsh ranks among the youngest in 
years of the Governors of Massachusetts, having been inaugurated for his 
first term when he was 40. With the exceptions of George S. Boutwell, 
who became Governor when he was but 32, and William E. Russell who 
first assumed the office at 33, the present Governor is the youngest of them 
all. Governor Banks and Governor Long were first inaugurated at 41. All 
our other governors have been further along in their forties or fifties. 

In summing up the comparative merits of the Walsh administration, 
it will be pertinent and informing for the inquiring citizen to compare its 
political appointments and its general political policies with those of admin- 
istrations of the opposing party. Have the Walsh appointments and general 
policies been any more partisan than those of the other side, or has there 
been manifested any greater disposition to cater to religious or racial pre- 
judices? The record is an open book and the question may be easily ans- 
wered in the light of its data. Generally speaking, Governor Walsh is to 


be credited with having suggested and brought about many salutary reforms 
in the public interest. He has shown a deep and intelligent interest in legis- 
lation looking to Tax reform. He has brought about a reorganization of 
the state department of health and has secured the services of a distinguished 
health expert to put the new law into practical operation. The state board 
of insanity has been reorganized, putting 16,000 unfortunate charges of the 
state under the supervision of three men whose entire time must be devoted 
to their welfare. The workingman's compensation act has been amended 
at his suggestion so as to provide for a substantial increase in the amount 
of money paid to workingmen and women without any increase in the rates 
charged to the employer. He has successfully favored labor legislation 
in accordance with the prevailing sentiment of the times. He has pro- 
cured the enactment of a law providing for rural credits to help the farmers 
and without being parsimonious he has been able to keep the State Tax down 
to $8,750,000, an amount over S2, 000, 000, less than was anticipated at the 
beginning of the last legislative session. 

The cause of popular education has found in Governor Walsh an earnest 
friend and promoter. He has urged that the state provide some means 
of -giving a free education to the industrious boys and girls who leave school 
early in life to go to work in the factories and workshops. To this end the 
Governor has urged the establishment of free state correspondence schools 
where correspondence courses of study can be given to those who desire 
them. As showing the need and demand for such courses it has been found 
that a single one of these correspondence schools outside the state, which 
charges a fee for the courses, has had 90,000 Massachusetts people on its 
rolls during the last twenty-five years. One of the most important achieve- 
ments in which the Governor has taken a leading part has been the settle- 
ment of the railroad situation, so far as Massachusetts is concerned, parti- 
cularly with reference to the New Haven system and the Boston and Maine. 
He has cordially co-operated with the Federal authorities in their efforts 
to correct bad conditions in this respect and the results of his and their labors 
should be salutary and beneficial alike to the railroads and to the public 
they serve. These are but a few of the Governor's achievements and under- 


takings in the line of promoting the welfare of the state and of its people. 
They serve to illustrate his practical good sense, his intelligent compre- 
hension of public problems and his aptitude for solving them. All prac- 
tical schemes for the promotion of social welfare have had his encouragement. 

However widely people may differ in opinion as to the manner in which 
Governor Walsh has discharged the sterner duties of his office there is a 
very general agreement among those who have come in contact with him 
in one way or another that he is an exceptionally agreeable Governor per- 
sonally, and that in the performance of his perfunctory and ornamental duties 
he compares quite favorably with the most graceful, dignified and socially 
accomplished of his predecessors, maintaining all the fine traditions ot his 
office in this respect. He is courtly and gracious on all occasions, always 
approachable, a respectful listener to all comers and firmly insistent on the 
observance of the proprieties where he is officially present. He is an el- 
oquent and pleasing speaker, both on formal and informal occasions, on 
the platform or at the banquet board and this accomplishment, added to 
his handsome and impressive presence, is a source of proper pride to that 
vast constituency which likes to see a Governor who fills the eye and the 
ear as well as the other senses. At the recent convention of Governors held 
in Boston where the chief executives of a large number of the states assem- 
bled to confer with each other on affairs relating to their duties and func- 
tions, Governor Walsh, acting as the chief host of the occasion, performed 
his part with rare tact, grace and felicity, calling forth expressions of admir- 
ation and gratitude from the assembled governors, some of whom came 
here curious to see 'what manner of man our Roman Catholic Governor 
might be. They went away quite reconciled to the innovation. 

Another of Governor Walsh's pleasing characteristics is that he is al- 
ways ready to listen to counsel and advice regarding the affairs of his office 
and the best way of dealing with them. He is amenable to reason and ap- 
propriate suggestion, but he refuses to be bossed. He has no kitchen cab- 
inet and he is his own final referee. Some of his political opponents have 
called him an amiable gentleman, intimating that his qualifications for his 
position are limited to the one implied by this title. This circumscribed 


compliment may reasonably be interpreted as leaving no question as to 
the Governor's possession of at least some of the pleasing qualifications 
of a chief executive, even in the estimation of his more critical adversaries. 
On this score the verdict may be said to be cordially unanimous in his favor. 
It remains to be said that Governor Walsh is a batchelor, a quite ex- 
ceptional circumstance in his high office. His condition in this respect 
is not irreparable however. He is not an old bachelor, and has ample time 
to repent. Having but just entered middle life, possessing an attractive 
presence and having the promise of a continued successful and brilliant 
future before him he may still be said to be on the eminently eligible list, 
matrimonially and otherwise. 




The passing of John Davis Long, taken together with that of Curtis 
Guild but a short time before, removed two ex-Governors of Massachusetts 
who enjoyed a remarkable degree of personal popularity among their fellow 
citizens. It is undoubtedly speaking within bounds to say that none of our 
other Ex-Governors, in recent years at least, surpassed these two in this 
respect. They enjoyed the warm affection, as well as the high esteem 
of all classes and conditions, irrespective of party affiliations. Without 
undertaking to institute a comparison of their respective merits on this 
score, it may be said that Governor Long's strong hold upon the affectionate 
regard of the people was based rather more distinctly on his personality 
than was the case with Governor Guild. Both were exceptionally strong 
and pleasing in this particular, but somehow the heart and the hand of the 
average citizen went out rather more freely and spontaneously to the former 
than to the latter. Governor Long's geniality seemed to have been born 
within him and to have increased with his years. There was not the faint- 
est trace of pretense or artificiality in his manner of carrying himself any- 
where. He fairly bubbled over with a good nature that was as genuine 
as it was free and unrestrained. 

Having in mind the wide range of his personal friendships and the large 
number of people who cherished a fondness for him, it has been said that 
the sorrow occasioned by Governor Long's death was deeper and more wide- 
spread than could have been caused by the taking off of almost any other em- 
inent citizen of Massachusetts. There may have been quite as able, perhaps 
abler, governors of the Commonwealth than he, but none had a stronger 
hold on the hearts of the people. He prided himself more on his sound 
commonsense and his average qualities than upon any exceptional ability 


or attainments, notwithstanding the weil-recognized fact that he was not 
lacking in scholarly and statesmanlike equipment. He was never a poser. 
He wore his heart upon his sleeve throughout all his public career and he 
let his characteristics, as well as his acts, speak for themselves. 

What a fine career he had from his early manhood until his death at 
the ripe old age of 76! He can hardly be said to have shown any unusual 
degree of precocity in his earlier years. He came from the little town of 
Buckfield, down in Maine, where he was born of good Yankee stock. There 
was nothing of the patrician in his antecedents, so far as blood or breeding 
were concerned. When he entered Harvard college, at the age of 15, he was 
a plain country boy with little but his native talents to rely upon for what- 
ever success he might be destined to achieve. After his graduation from col- 
lege and his admission to the bar he practised law, first in his native town 
and subsequently in Boston. It was not until more than a dozen years later. 
when he was 37 years old, that his public career began with his member- 
ship in the lower branch of the Massachusetts Legislature. From that 
time onward his public career was steadily and rapidly upward. He had 
served but a sinlge term in the Legislature when he was chosen Speaker of 
the House, serving three successive terms in this capacity. The following 
year he was elected Lieutenant-Governor, and the next year he was in- 
augurated Governor, serving three successive terms. 

He subsequently served three terms in Congress, and was a member of the 
cabinets of Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt. All these honors came 
to him within a period of less than a score of years. Meanwhile he was 
called to numerous places of honor and responsibility of a non-political char- 
acter. These were in religious, educational, and social lines, in all of which 
he achieved something of the same success and distinction that marked his 
political career. In all these varied activities he evinced the tactful, grace- 
ful, sympathetic and winning qualities that seemed to be an essential part 
of his nature. The only wonder of it all is that even higher honors and 
distinctions did not come to him. 

In order to appreciate the traits and characteristics that marked Gov- 
ernor Long's brilliant career let us note some of the incidents of it and the 


anecdotes told of him by those who were closely associated with him, or 
who watched him from a distance. Next to his abounding good nature 
and geniality his most marked and pleasing accomplishment was his talent 
or aptitude as a public speaker. He was not a great orator. His power 
and influence, in this respect, were due rather to the facility, grace, tact, and 
wit or good humor which marked all his utterances on the platform, in the fo- 
rum or at the dinner table. He captured his audiences by these qualities 
rather than by those of Demosthenes, a Cicero, a Burke, a Webster or a 
Wendell Phillips. His appeal was to the hearts of his hearers and to their 
sense of humor and the decent fitness of things rather than to their pro- 
founder understanding. This was especially true of his political campaign 
speaking. It has been recalled how on one occasion during an exciting 
presidential campaign he met the editorial attack of a Democratic news- 
paper on the presidential candidate of the Republicans: 

"Now, my fellow citizens," said Governor Long, holding the editorial 
extract aloft, "do you know who wrote that denunciatory article? Did 
you ever visit an editorial office and get a chance to see the editor? In order 
to see an editor you must climb several flights of dirty, dingy stairs, smeared 
with filth and tobacco juice. After reaching one of the top floors you in- 
quire for the editor and are permitted to enter a seven-by-nine room which 
for some inscrutable reason, is called a sanctum-sanctorum. Here you 
see a fellow seated on a three-legged stool, with his feet on the table, an old 
hat perched on the back of his head, and probably a corn-cob pipe in his 
mouth. You tell him your business and he proceeds to get rid of you as 
soon as possible. Perhaps you are fortunate enough to get some satisfac- 
tion from your interview, and perhaps not — usually not. Now, my fellow 
citizens, that is the kind of man that writes such newspaper editorials as 
this one which I have read to you, and his appearance and environment 
are such as I have described. If you should chance to meet that sort of 
a man, with such an appearance, on the street, or anywhere else than in the 
editorial office of a newspaper, you would give no heed to his opinions on 
public men or public affairs, and they would never disturb you." 


This was all Governor Long had to say concerning the Democratic ed- 
itorial he was holding up to scorn, but he had said enough. The editor 
had been shown up and his editorial demolished by the speaker's keen rid- 
icule; of course, it is to be understood that this attack on the personality 
of a newspaper editor was not meant to be taken seriously. It was Gov- 
ernor Long's way of putting his audiences in good humor and of spiking 
the guns of the opposition editors. The editors, thus denounced, never thought 
of denouncing the Governor in turn. They all knew him and they usually 
appreciated the fact that the speaker was having a little fun at their ex- 
pense for political campaign purposes. They also appreciated that prob- 
ably within the next few days the cheery Governor would drop into their 
sanctums to have a laugh with them on the way he had shown them up for 
the edification of a Faneuil Hall audience, eager to see the wicked Dem- 
ocratic editors flayed. Few men in public life were more cordially wel- 
comed in the editorial offices than was Governor Long. His visits were 
frequent, and of mutual benefit and enlightenment. Among all the asper- 
ities that mark the newspaper discussions of public questions during ex- 
citing political campaigns it would be difficult to find anything approach- 
ing a bitter personal attack on Governor Long. He enjoyed the friendship 
and respect of editors and reporters alike and they treated him accordingly. 
His sarcasm at the expense of the editors contrasted in a marked manner 
with the politeness and distinguished consideration he uniformly showed 
the newspaper reporters. He jollied them, occasionally, and they were fond 
of calling him "Johnny" among themselves. They liked him and always 
gave him the full benefit of their facilities for promoting favorable publicity. 

The story is told that once upon a time the Governor wrote a highly com- 
plimentary letter to a stenographer who had made a very full and hand- 
some reproduction of one of the Governor's speeches. In this letter the 
recipient was characterized as the most accomplished stenographer the 
Governor had ever known. This letter was warmly cherished by the steno- 
grapher until he chanced to discover by accident that the Governor had 
written numerous other letters to other stenographers, paying them the 
same handsome compliment in almost the same words. However, the short- 


hand fraternity never thought any the less of the genial Governor. In 
some public men it would have looked like duplicity. In the case of Gov- 
ernor Long it was reckoned only another illustration of his habit of say- 
ing nice things to those who came in contact with him in one way or another. 

That Governor Long might have become President of the United 
States but for a peculiar combination of circumstances which the fates de- 
creed, is an interesting circumstance in the story of his career. It was on 
account of President McKinley's firm insistance that Long was selected 
for the McKinley cabinet and made Secretary of the Navy. This preference 
of President McKinley's was based largely on personal considerations, the 
two men having previously been on terms of intimate acquaintance in Wash- 
ington. Each had a fondness for the other and each admired the other's 
genial qualities, as well as their respective views and treatment of public 
questions. President McKinley's nearest friend, Mark Hanna, used to 
say in his facetious way that Governor Long was the only man in public 
life in Washington of whom he had good reason to be jealous. "I seldom 
sit down for a chat with the President that he doesn't have something to 
say about that fellow. Johnny Long. He sometimes appears to be be- 
witched of him." That this fondness was something more than a passing 
fancy was further demonstrated later on when the question arose as to who 
should be nominated for Vice President on the ticket with McKinley for 
the latter's second term. The President made no concealment of his per- 
sonal preference for his Secretary of the Xavy, and his preference would 
probably have been respected but for the awkward situation then existing 
in New York, which made it seem necessary or prudent to nominate Gover- 
nor Theodore Roosevelt in order to pacify Mr. Piatt, who wanted to get 
rid of Roosevelt whom he rated a disturbing factor in New York politics. 
But for this complication Governor Long would probably have received 
the vice-presidential nomination, with such ultimate results as fell to the 
lot- of Roosevelt when President McKinley was assassinated at the very be- 
ginning of his second term. 

Of all the offices held by Governor Long during his public life that of 
Governor of Massachusetts was the one which was most to his liking. He 


filled it with exceptional ability, dignity and grace and won for himself 
fresh laurels as a fine administrator and chief executive magistrate. His 
policies, his appointments and his performance of the ornamental duties 
of the office were equally creditable to him and to the state. He found 
his subsequent three terms of service in Congress agreeable, but irksome, — 
its chief duties being facetiously likened by him to those of an errand boy. 
From a national point of view the position of Secretary of the Navy was 
his most important office, but its duties and responsibilities never afforded 
him much real enjoyment or satisfaction. Its most agreeable feature was 
that it brought him in intimate association with President McKinley whom 
he was glad to serve. The thorn in Secretary Long's flesh was Assistant 
Secretary Roosevelt whose insubordination was equalled or surpassed only 
by his impudence, in the Secretary's estimation. The embarrassment oc- 
casioned by his relations with his assistant, however, did not interfere 
with the Secretary's work in promoting the welfare and efficiency of the 
naval service. Many useful and salutary reforms in the service were brought 
about through his influence. One of the reforms he earnestly sought to 
effect was the improvement of the naval chaplain's corps which was then 
in a bad way, sad to say. While there were some excellent chaplains in the 
navy the average of them was such to make it, in proportion to its numbers, 
the most disreputable corps in the navy for a time, according to com- 
petent official opinion. Secretary Long dismissed one chaplain for drunk- 
ness and obscenity. One other was twice arrested and convicted in a Boston 
police court for immorality. Two or three more were dismissed for even 
more serious offences. There were others guilty of no specific crime, but 
they were found to be wholly inefficient and worthless. Some of the ap- 
plicants for these chaplaincies which were chiefly political appointments, 
were of equally bad character. One of them brought a letter to the Secre- 
tary purporting to be signed by Phillips Brooks. It was torn and discolored 
and it was dated two or three days before the latter's death. The Secre- 
tary was familiar with the famous bishop's signature and he questioned 
the genuineness of that on this letter. Communication with the bishop's 
brother established the fact that the letter was a forgery. But for Secre- 


tary Long's persistent activity in uncovering this fraud there is testimony 
to show that this applicant would probably have been appointed to a naval 
chaplaincy, so strong were the political influences exerted in his favor. In 
this direction, as in others, Secretary Long corrected many glaring abuses 
in the department during his four years' service at its head. 

The naval portfolio was the last of the public offices held by Governor 
Long. The remaining years of his life were devoted to his private affairs 
and to such activities as engage the attention of a patriotic and useful citi- 
zen interested in the welfare and progress of his country and the better- 
ment of moral, educational and social conditions among its people. All 
these interests received his earnest and sympathetic attention. He indulged 
his literary aptitude and tastes by frequent contributions to literature, 
historical, biographical, political and poetical, and he was an influential 
and valued member of scientific, historical, literary and social organiza- 
tions. During his long service as an overseer of Harvard University be 
was invariably chosen to preside over that learned body. Althougb he 
was not a prohibitionist in the political sense he was a firm and consistent 
supporter of temperance, and for a long time he presided over The ^Massa- 
chusetts Total Abstinence Society. 

His was a useful and happy life throughout, and his fine temperament 
enabled him to get genuine enjoyment out of it in full measure. Reply- 
ing to a letter of congratulation on the attainment of his 75th birthday, 
when it was proposed that some public notice be taken of the anniversary, 
he wrote this letter in his free and happy way: 

"It is certainly not modesty that prompts my reluctance to have any 
notice taken of my 75th birthday, for I don't know any better fellow at 
75 than I am. The best reason I can give for my unwillingness to join in 
such a celebration is that I do not want it. I couldn't stand a public occas- 
ion, at so many of which I have been an attendant, and where I should feel 
like a fool when the words, however kind, that are always spoken at such 
anniversaries, fell on my ears. I have no wish to conceal my age. On 
the contrary, I rather like it, and I think I can say that it is the happiest 
time of a very happy life. If it were not for the calendar and the geneai- 


ogical record I would not be conscious of being a day older than long ago 
when you and I were first acquaint." 

Very much resembling Governor Long in many respects, particularly 
as to the element of personal popularity, Governor Guild was different in 
others. Both of them were highly successful governors. Both were tact- 
ful, graceful and scholarly men, gifted with the traits and characteristics 
that go to make wide popularity, but each seemed to have acquired these 
accomplishments by different methods. From his early boyhood Governor 
Guild seemed to be swayed or actuated by an ambition to achieve the many 
distinctions that came to him. As a schoolboy he was particularly strong 
on declamation. He could "speak a piece" almost as eloquently when he 
was in his 'teens as later on when he swayed audiences by speeches of his 
own composition. He took the first prize for oratory at Harvard College 
and his classmates used to point to him as one of their number who was 
surely destined to achieve distinction in public life. The same may be said 
of his taste and aptitude for military affairs. He was an officer in his school 
regiment and had won the title of Major long before he had received his 
first school diploma. Possessing a fine presence, a soldierly bearing and a 
talent for strict discipline it was as easy to forsee that he was destined to 
became a more or less distinguished general as it was to anticipate his fine 
career in civil life. It will thus be noted that while Governor Long did not 
begin to show either the promise or the inclination toward a distinguished 
public career until he was well along in his early manhood, Governor Guild 
had hitched his wagon to the stars while he was yet a beardless youth. It 
has beeji given to few men so fully to achieve the definite ambitions of 
their boyhood dreams as was the case with Curtis Guild. The schoolboy 
orator came step by step to be an exceptionally eloquent public speaker 
and chiefly by the exercise of this accomplishment he became remarkably 
successful in public life, achieving one promotion after another until he 
reached the highest political office in the gift of the people of his state not 
to mention the subsequent honors won by him as a diplomat. In like 
manner this young major of a school battalion subsequently became a cap- 
tain and a colonel in the state militia and subsequently a general in the 



Spanish war. No skilful mariner, with chart and compass, ever set sail 
for a given port and reached it more surely and safely than was the case 
with Curtis Guild in making his life's voyage. That he did not achieve 
even higher honors and greater distinction is probably due to the fact that, 
unlike Governor Long who lived to be more than three score and ten. he 
was cut off in the very prime of his manhood when there was even- reason 
to expect that there were other prizes in store for him. As illustrating his 
earlier promise it is said that when his name was proposed for membership 
in the famous Hasty Pudding Club at Harvard college there was some op- 
position to his election on account of some personal pique. "Oh, let Guild 
in!" was the shout. "He's going to be a big man some day and the Pudding 
can point with pride to his name on its membership roll." He was promptly 
elected and the prophecy was fulfilled. It is a notable circumstance, by 
the way, that Harvard college, which was Governor Guild's alma mater, 
and from which he was graduated with a summa cum lavde, omitted to bes- 
stow any of its honorary degrees on him, notwithstanding all the prece- 
dents and the practise that favored such a bestowal. Governors and di- 
plomats without number and of less distinguished and scholarly attainments 
than Governor and Ambassador Guild had been thus honored from time 
immemorial but it was left to other high institutions of learning in this 
country and abroad instead of to his own alma mater to pay him this homage. 
Williams college, Holy Cross college, and the University of Geneva in 
Switzerland conferred their highest degrees on him. This apparent slight 
of Harvard's was resented by many of Governor Guild's admirers and that 
it did not pass unnoticed by him is denoted by the fact that he remembered 
all three of the above named institutions by testamentary gifts while Harvard 
was not mentioned in his will. 

Among Governor Guild's conspicuous attainments was his linguistic 
faculty. He was familiar with seven languages and he could converse fluently 
in five. He learned to speak the Russian language in a very short space 
of time after his appointment as ambassador to St. Petersburg, and 
he acquired proficiency in Spanish with equal facility when he was sent as 
a special embassador to Mexico. In this respect he was almost the peer 


of Rufus Choate who was known in his day as the most accomplished poly- 
glot in public life in this country. Professionally Governor Guild called 
himself a journalist . He had the natural and acquired ability, as well as 
the training and experience to fit him for that calling, but his political ac- 
tivities during the greater part of his career engaged his attention to such 
an extent as to prevent his achieving the eminence in his nominal profession 
which might easily have come to him had he devoted a larger share of his 
energies to editorial work. At the time of his death he was the active edi- 
tor and proprietor of the Commercial-Bulletin as his father had been be- 
fore him. He may be said to have been one of the few editors who never 
became enslaved by his calling which is the welcome fate of most success- 
ful journalists. 

Although Governor Guild died before his time he lived long enough to 
achieve a wide and enduring fame, not only as one of our great Governors, 
but as an eminent and useful citizen. A handsome fund for a monument 
to his memory has already been subscribed by his appreciative fellow-citi- 
zens who have thus manifested a desire not only to pay a substantial tribute 
to the memory of a distinguished citizen of the Commonwealth, but also to 
furnish a visible reminder of a career in every way worthy of imitation and 
emulation by coming generations. 




By Frank Jones Wilder 

The death of Air. George Emery Littlefield, the well known Cornhill 
bookseller, on Satuiady, September 4th, marked the passing away of a char- 
acter unique in the history of Boston, and of the book selling trade in America. 

The writer's acquaintance with Air. Littlefield began in 1908. At that 
time I was living in Saratoga Springs, N. Y., and dabbling some in old 

A call came in one day for a certain Massachusetts town history, and 
not having it in stock, I advertised for it among the old book dealers, and 
was offered a copy by Air. Littlefield for nine dollars. Two or three days 
later, another dealer, also a Massachusetts man, offered me two copies for 
three dollars each. Having no use at that time for more than a single copy, 
I wrote and offered the other to Air. Littlefield for five dollars, at the 
same time, stating in vigorous terms, with the conceit born of ingorance, 
my opinion of his price. 

I promptly received a check for the book with the statement, "I'll get 
ten dollars for that book." 

Later on, when I decided to move my business to a larger field, I came 
to Boston, and met Air. Littlefield for the first time. 

I was particularly impressed with two things: first, his plain direct way 
of speaking; secondly, his marvellous knowledge of books of the class in 
which he specialized. 

Before we parted that day, he referred to the transaction just narrated 
and said, "I got ten dollars for that book, just as I told you I would." 

As I grew to know him better, and saw his wonderful knowledge of books, 
and his unfailing judgment as to prices and values, I realized that I had met 


the best posted man in America, on books of a historical or genealogical 

In searching out the cause of his wonderful knowledge, I found that 
he had a natural aptitude and love for the old book business. I also found, 
that during the last half century almost, that he was in business, he had 
seen the number of town histories published in New England, double sev- 
eral times; and the number of genealogies increased from five hundred in 
1868, to over ten thousand at the beginning of the present year, and had 
acted as agent for the selling of the greater part of them. 

He thus acquired little by little, valuable information regarding size 
of editions, who had them, how many had been sold, and changes which 
came from year to year, both in the value of the books and in the supply. 

I once asked him how it was that his price for Barry's History of Hanover, 
Mass,, was five dollars, while some other dealers asked three times that 
price. The answer was, "the book's gone to seed. It brought repeatedly, 
and was worth from twelve dollars to twenty dollars, until a new history 
of the town came out in two volumes which was sold for less than five dol- 
lars, fully as complete and brought down to date, and of which there were 
enough printed to last for some years yet to come." 

Close critics have sometimes said of him that he was not at all times 
as diplomatic as he might have been. To him, the waiting upon a customer 
who desired to procure an old novel for a quarter, or a last year's number 
of Harper's Bazaar, aroused little enthusiasm, and seldom called forth any 
extended preliminary conversation from the party of the First Part. 

His long experience had eminently fitted him to advise both authors 
and readers as to wisdom in book buying, selling and writing. Seldom did 
a week pass that he was not consulted by people producing historical or 
genealogical books. 

Never have I known him to refuse aid to people of this class. Often 
have I known him to have been imposed upon by tight fisted people who 
wanted something for nothing, and who expected the old book man to 
supply as a gift, information in this line, for which a very ordinary law- 
yer in his own line, would charge from ten to fifty dollars. 


The following story was told me by Mr. Littlefield himself, only a few 
weeks before his death. 

One day, some years ago, there came into his shop a man who took book 
after book from the shelves, and copied at length from them upon a pad 
which he took from his pocket. After some time, Mr Littlefield came for- 
ward from his desk in the rear of the store and said, "we don't allow that 
here." The man looked at him, and he looked at the man. Continuing 
the conversation, Mr Littlefield said, "that's what I call stealing. I get 
my living by selling books which contain information people want. You 
are taking it without leave or license. I cannot allow that." 

The man put back the books, returned the pad to his pocket, and de- 
parted. Later it came out that the man was a professor at Yale. When 
Mr. Littlefield heard of this a day or two later, he remarked, "all the more 
reason why the man should have known better." 

Mr. Littlefield told me another story which I here repeat. A man came 
to his store one day and asked for a certain book which Mr. L. priced to 
him at seventy-five cents. The man demurred at the price and said, "they 
sell that book for fifty cents on Bromfield Street/* to which Mr. Littlefield 
replied, "the price is very reasonable." "But," said the man, "they have- 
n't got any now." The answer he got was, "when I don't have any, I might 
sell them for ten cents." 

The customer departed only to show up the following day, and again 
haggle over the price. Upon asking if there w T as any different price from 
the preceding day, he was told that the book was then worth one dollar. 
He again departed to return the following day, and ask the price w T hich had 
now risen to a dollar and a quarter. 

Twice more did he reappear only to find that the book w r as advancing 
twenty-five cents per day. 

He finally took the book at a dollar and seventy-five cents, which he 
hurriedly paid to forestall any further advance. 

Another story which it pleased Mr. Littlefield to relate, w T as regarding 
a certain trustee of a well known institution not a thousand miles from Boston, 
who came to him just prior to a celebrated auction sale, and handed him 


a list of books desired by the Library he represented, which he instructed 
Mr. Littlefield to buy, giving no prices on any of the items nor authorizing 
discretionary bids. 

The day after the sale, Mr. Littlefield's client met him on the street and 
said,"I suppose you bought those books for us," to which Mr. Littlefield 
replied, "I got some of them for you.'' In a tone of reproof, the trustee 
said somewhat testily, "I thought I told you to buy them all. Why didn't 
you do it?" The answer was, "because I'm not a blamed fool." 

The writer is not quite sure that the descriptive adjective used 
by the Corn hill Sage was "blamed." I do know that the word had 
six letters in it, and ended with a "d?" Possibly it began with the same 
letter. Continuing the conversation, Mr. Littlefield said, "don't you get 
mj T catalogs?" to which the man replied, "I suppose so." "Well, don't 
you ever read them?" "I suppose our people look them over more or less." 
"Don't you know that one of the books you wanted me to pay six dollars 
for has been in my catalog the last two or three years at two dollars and 
fifty cents?" The man said, "no." Mr. Littlefield said, ''it is a fact." 
He continued, "I am often glad to sell books for much less than some seem- 
ingly well posted people are willing to pay for them if they see them going 
to someone else at auction." 

Catalog number one, was issued by Mr. Littlefield in February, 1878, 
and consisted of sixteen pages. The title page is here shown. 

This catalog, like all of those compiled by Mr. Littlefield, is remarkable 
for its accurate, concise descriptions. It is said that quite a number of 
tight-fisted Yankees "used his catalogs at Libbie's auctions, and made a rule 
of bidding from one half to two thirds of the price at which the books were 
therein valued. 

Well was it said of him by one of our leading Librarians, that he had 
forgotten more in his line of business than all the rest of us ever knew. I 
hate to disagree with so good an authority, but I never knew Mr. Little- 
field to forget anything. Nor did I ever see him stumped fur want of a book 
he knew r he had and couldn't find. 

I really believe that on the darkest night of any Friday, the thirteenth, 

trffTrr t moins warn, m*?.** » »*» «*«.*— — . 





George E. Littlefield 



of the month, he could go to the store at midnight, and without aid of any 
light, find the particular book he wanted. 

The confidence reposed in Mr. Littlefield's judgment, both by private 
collectors and large institutions, made him a busy man on auction days 


B&ria! CckEons, Tom Histories and MisceHaneoy. Beaks, 

Early History of C-sr Cooatry, 

. B. LITTLEFIELD. «7 Conjjjill St.. Boston. 




Georgia HutoncaJ <M«t Collection*, 
t TOb- 9r», doth, pp. 3)8-315. Mrio- 
•Eh. 184J-I2 t.5.00 

hUioa. Cofiectioaj of the Mune His- 
tortc&l Society. * *oU- Complete, (roro- 
the coca Beacea-nt io 18 (ruin:.). fVI 
<*W. .Ver i*i p'i+e «. . . «20.00 

and Seriee, $ vc'j. bomb- Th:rd Se- 
■K*. Vols. J. 1, 5. 6. 7, 8, boinls. Fourth 
Seiies, Vols, t, 3, 1, 5. 6, 8. 9, 10. cloth. 
Fifth. Series, Vobu I . i, 3, cloth. 33 vols. 
Barton. 1798-1*77. MO.OO 

( N«» Ui-Tij-aire HLitonca! Soc.cty Col- 

Sakxu. . Vol * t». 

ardi. rjp. 3 

.'. «vo. 

Owcord. 18*7.- 


New Jtrsej Hiswncil Society 


Hoos. VoLt, ««>. c 

loth, pp. 1 

Xer Tort, 1817-1 v* 


Nf» Jersey H;s;.,r. 

ilS.-c-.ety. !V>ceel- 

ta^of. VoL VI. 1*1 


pp.*l£ .Newark. I< 

SI. 00 

■AM*yr««ii Wilotk, 

*/ Soc/erj -W 




Portdu<.fae«te.(a 17'. 

Edwsrd UrsoXork. H 

Wo, doth. Phil*. I" 

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Vots, CooLnb;':oo 

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lory; TV SodefiJ 

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Whiskey Insorreitxi 


Cm of Msjor Aad.-c 

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feansylrsals, I676-1CM, m. 

' ;<nr;ii kepi by Mii. E. Der 

Huto.-.-jI M»p of Petlivlrsaiv shc«- 

13? 13! It! 13 nin.-iorvr.rsju. V'il!ir-». 

£c. : To? 3.te» of Old Kortj is I iljt-.le- 

rjeldj; P-jr.-hsjes frjai the iod.iaj. 6a. 

8vo, doth. pp. 2G, and lira foldm.: aup 

Phils. 1*75. 

« York HutorictU Society Collecaoo. 

onavolume. 8»o.0oiri*. 

.. l.'8-n)i. Nt» York. 1811-18 jl. ti in 

San? — Publication Fund Sories for 18*8 

d 1870. 8 r o.cijth.aaait. Eich t!M 

Venaoti Historical Society Culiectwne, 

VoU I, 


pelier. 1<71. 

Wisconsin rTutoncslSocietyColIe. 
6 coi*. *vo. cloth sod piper. iLi 

ProtesUat Episcopal fli-Stonci! S 
Co!;ect.on-». 8vo, cioth, pp. 30S. 
IrvlA. Ne> York. I«l. 

Episojpai Church in MirrUud. by *'. U 
Hi»k.. D. D. 8vo. boirdi, pp. irtx 
Ne» Yorx. I8J9." II if. 

llisUTt^ii CoUcctijas of the Amcnf 

at Libbie's sales. There he was a most familiar figure. He usually sat on 
the front row, or close to it. Seldom did he make an oral bid; often during 
sales have I noticed a peculiar muscular contraction in and around the left 
eye, vulgarly termed a wink, but far more pronounced than any wink, tak- 
ing in as it did, practically the whole side of the face. This silent bid of 
his was sometimes hard to locate if the room was well filled, but it was al- 
ways visible to the man on the block. All that the rest of us saw was the 
back of a bald head, with a fringe of black hair at the base, slightly tinged 
with gray. 


Many a time when I was wondering whether the auctioneer was simply 
flirting with me, or really had the bid he claimed, have I seen some choice 
literary nugget struck down to one 'Field, who sat on the front seat, almost 
under the auctioneer's nose. 

As an author, Mr. Littlefield showed the same hard common sense which 
was a marked characteristic of him in his business. He never attempted 
to carry more sail than his ballast would warrant. In fact, he could have 
expanded his business very materially with perfect propriety, and yet have 
retained his characteristic modesty. 

In his writings, he confined himself strictly to subjects upon which he 
was deeply and thoroughly informed. 

His first book, "Early Boston Booksellers," was published in 1900, by 
the Club of Odd Volumes, of which he was a member, the members paying 
five dollars each per copy. 

To such an extent had it increased in value within four years, that the 
Library of Congress paid fifty-two dollars at auction for the copy they now own. 

• This was followed three years later by his "Early Boston Schools," which 
also commands a large premium over the published price. 

In 1907, he brought out in two volumes, "The Early Massachusetts 

His last literary production, was a catalog prepared by him in 1908 for 
the Massachusetts Exhibition of Colonial Books, at the Jamestown Expo- 
sition. It is said that the exhibition was secured entirely through his 
influence. It was written in a careful and concise manner, and was so ap- 
preciated, that it secured the highest award there given; a gold medal, the 
title of the catalog reading, "1607-1907. A Descriptive Catalog of the 
Massachusetts Exhibit of Colonial Books at the Jamestown Ter-Centennial 
Exposition. Privately printed in Boston, 1907." 

Mr. Littlefield was a member of several genealogical and. historical 
societies, and as such, was of material value to these institutions. 


I remember one time of his telling me of the vast difference in the book 
business of today, and that of fifty years ago. When he began, such a 
thing as a fiat was practically unknown. People lived in their own houses, 
with many rooms, and had large libraries, and bought books to place in 

He once told me that it was no uncommon thing thirty years ago, for 
him to sell a hundred dollars a day of cheap fiction outside his door. 

With the coming of the department store, later the cheap magazine, 
and more recently the movies, the trade of the old-time bookseller has radi- 
cally changed. 

He was a native of Boston, born in 1844, on Milton Street, West End, 
a graduate from the Latin School in '59, and from Harvard in '66. In '08, 
he associated himself with C. F. Sprague" & Company on Brattle Street in 
what is now the rear store of Frost & Adams, 37 Cornhill, and began deal- 
ing in old books, in which he had shown a great deal of interest for several 
years. He later moved to 6" Cornhill where he remained until within about 
three weeks of the time of his death. 

Jlis store was small, with rather a dingy and unpossessing front. It 
extended through from Cornhill to Brattle Street, a distance of some thirty 
or forty feet, with a basement entrance on Brattle Street. Some twenty 
feet back from the front was a raised half decked floor. On the left hand 
corner of this, close up to the Brattle Street window, stood Mr. Little- 
field's desk, and here he was wont to hold Communion with kindred spirits 
of the book hunting and book loving fraternity. 

To the visitor, the store and its fittings were in perfect harmony, and 
carried one back many years. The sanctity of the place was never invaded 
by the electric light, nor profaned by the click of a typewriter, or the tinkle 
of a telephone bell; neither did he employ any of the twentieth century 
methods of card filing, to aid him to supply information on topics about which 
he might be consulted. He didn't have to; he had it all in his head. 

Mr. Littiefield's death came suddenly. It is a striking illustration of 
the uncertainty of human life, that within thirty days of the time Mr. Little- 


field buried his wife, his house had been sold, his books dispensed from the 
store, and he was dead and buried. 

His remains lie in Mount Auburn, in Cambridge, but a little way from 
his old home on Chester street. 

In his death, both the public library and the private collector, have lost 
a conscientious and valued friend, and the bookselling fraternity of the 
city, will long miss a man of whom we were all proud, and whose reputation 
will live for many years to come. 



General Artemas Ward's Regiment, Lexington Alarm, April 19. 1775 
— General Artemas Ward's 1st Rregiment, Provincial Army, 
May-June, 1775 — Colonel Jonathan Ward's 32nd Reg- 
iment, Army of the United Colonies, 
July-December, 1775. 

Continued from No. 3, Vol. VIII. 

CAPTAIN SETH WASHBURN of Leicester, was born in Bridge- 
water in 1723, the son of Joseph Washburn. He was a blacksmith 
by trade and in 1756, an inn-keeper. The statement is made in the 
"History of Leicester" that he had been a soldier in one of the expeditions 
against the Indians in 1749, but the author has failed to confirm it 
by the records in the archives. He served as selectman in 1758 and 
was head of the body of selectmen in 1773. In the above mentioned "His- 
tory of Leicester" it is also stated that he was Lieutenant in the Company 
of Captain Henshaw's Company of volunteers in 1773 and in April 1774, 
Lieutenant in Samuel Denny's 2nd Company of Foot of Leicester. He was 
Captain of a company in Colonel Ward's Regiment on the Lexington alarm, 
April 19, 1775, and April 24, 1775 was engaged as Captain in General Artemas 
Ward's First Regiment, Provincial Army, and served through the year under 
General Ward and Colonel Jonathan W T ard. February 13, 1776 he was 
commissioned Captain in Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Worcester County 
Regiment. February 6, 1778 he was commissioned Second Major in Colonel 
Samuel Denny's 1st Worcester County Regiment. In 1779 he was Muster 
Master of recruits. In a return dated June 12, 1781 he stated that he had 
sent forward 483 men from Worcester to serve in the Continental Army. 
He was a member of the State Constitutional Convention in 1779 and a 
member of the State Senate in 1780, 1783, 1784-87. He was Justice of the 
Peace in 1781. In the above mentioned "History of Leicester" it is stated 
that he had "a ready command of language; was a fluent and forcible speaker 
of fearless courage and great firmness." He has been described as having 
a light complexion; high forehead and blue eyes; about 5 feet 10 inches in 
height, thin, active and muscular. He died February 12, 1794, aged 71 years. 


In the above history he is also characterized as "an honest man, a true pat- 
riot, a kind husband, an indulgent parent, an obliging neighbor and a friend 
of mankind." 

CAPTAIN .MOSES WHEELOCK of Worcester was born about 173S. 
He was a private in Captain William Arbuthnot's Company from March 
21 to October 25, 1775. April 2, 1759, at the age of 21, residence Wrentham, 
he enlisted in Colonel Samuel Miller's Regiment, having a record of pre- 
vious service in 1757 in Lake George. From April 2, 1759 to May 13, 17G0 
he was a Corporal in Captain Moses Curtis's Company, Colonel Frye's Regi- 
ment at Nova Scotia. He was selectman of Marlboro in 1771 and town 
clerk in 1771 and 1772. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched 
as Second Lieutenant in Captain Brigham's Company of Minute Men, 
General Artemas Ward's Regiment. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as 
Captain in General Artemas Ward's First Regiment in the Provincial 
Army, and he served through the year under General Ward and Colonel 
Jonathan W r ard. January 12, 1776 his name was proposed by the Legislature 
as Second Major in Colonel John Golden's 6th Worcester County Regiment, 
and he received his commission on the 23rd of March. June 24, 1776 he 
was commissioned Major in Colonel Jonathan Smith's Regiment, raised for 
service in Quebec and New York. In one record (year not given) he is 
credited with eight month's service at Dorchester and four months at 
New York. June 16. 1777 he was chosen Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel 
Job Cushing's 6th Worcester County Regiment. July 8th, 1780 he was 
Lieutenant Colonel in Colonel John Rand's 8th Regiment, Worcester 
County Militia and served until his discharge, October 11, 1780. He 
again served as Selectman of West borough from 1778 to 1782 and from 
1786 to 1795. The historian of W^estborough states that "he was a man 
of fine force." He died in 1801. 

CAPTAIN SAMUEL WOOD of Northborough was the son of Samuel 
and Mary Wood. He was born in Upton, May 16, 1739. September 24, 
1755 he was a member of Captain John Fay's Company, Colonel Josiah 
Brown's Regiment. In a list dated March 23, 1757 his name appears as 


alarm. May 2, 1758 he enlisted in Captain William Tyler, Junior's Com- 
pany, Colonel William Williams's Regiment. He died in Upton May 20, 
1830, aged 92 years. He was Captain of a Men's Minute Company in 
General Ward's Regiment, on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. 
May 25, 1775, he was commissioned Captain in General Ward's Regiment 
in the Provincial Army and he served under that officer and Colonel Jona- 
than Ward, through the year. He was reported as having been drafted 
September 16, 1777, but he "refused to march himself, to hire a man in his 
room, or pay a fine." 

CAPTAIN ROSS WYMAN of Shrewsbury, was the son of Seth and 
Sarah (Ross) Wyman. He was born in Woburn, August 16, 1717, and 
later removed to Shrewsbury. He was Corporal March 28, 1757, in a troop 
of horse, commanded by Captain Benjamin Eager in the 3rd Regiment of 
Middlesex and Worcester Counties and in August 1757, marched as Cor- 
poral in Lieutenant Stephen Maynard's Company from Marlborough to 
Westfield on the Fort William Henry alarm. He was a blacksmith by trade, 
and made a gun for Artemas Ward before the Revolution. In Ward's "His- 
tory -of Shrewsbury'' it is stated that "he was a stout athletic man, and prev- 
ious to the Revolution, while in Boston, and in his market, came near being 
seized and carried off by the press gang from a British Man-of-War." He 
drove them off by beating them with fish which he had in the wagon. He 
was Captain of a Shrewsbury Artillery Company in General Artemas Ward's 
Regiment which marched on the Lexington alarm on April 19, 1775, and 
served thirty days. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT EZRA BEAMAN of Shrewsbury was the son 
of Captain Jabez Beaman. April 7, 1757 Ezra's name appears in the list 
of members of the 2nd Militia Company of Shrewsbury, commanded by 
his father, Captain Jabez. In the billeting act dated 1758, food was pro- 
vided for Ezra Beaman on his way home from Lake George. He served as 
Lieutenant in Captain Robert Andrews's Company which marched from 
Shrewsbury to Cambridge on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 
28, 1775 he enlisted as First Lieutenant in Captain Job Cushing's Com- 
9 member of Captain Jonathan Wood's Company. In August 1757 as a 


pany, General Artemas Ward's 1st Regiment. Provincial Army, and he 
served through the year in Captain Job Cushing's Company, under Gen- 
eral Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward. His commission for this service 
signed by Joseph Warren is preserved in the archives, Volume 146, Page 
79. April 17, 1776 he was commissioned Captain of the 7th Company in 
Colonel John Golden's 6th Worcester County Regiment. 

the son of Eleazer and Sarah Bellows. He was born in Southborough, Oc- 
tober 29, 1728. In a training band list dated April 29, 1757 his name appears 
as a member of Colonel Timothy Brigham's (Southborough) Company. 
He enlisted December 4, 1775, as Lieutenant in Captain Silas Gates Com- 
pany, and received his commission, January 29, 1776. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT THOMAS BOND of Westborough was the 
son of Jonathan and Mary (Harrington) Bond of Waltham, and was born 
in that town January 30, 1739-40. He removed to Westborough, April 
1, 1757. Was a private in a training band of Westborough in a company 
commanded by Captain Benjamin Fay. In August of that year he marched 
in this company under the command of Lieutenant Jonas Brigham 
(serving as Captain) in Colonel Abraham Williams's Regiment, for the re- 
lief of Fort William Henry. In the returns it is stated that his father's name 
is Jonathan. He served as First Lieutenant in Captain Edmund Brigham's 
Company of Minute Men, General Artemas Ward's Regiment on the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775 he enlisted as First Lieuten- 
ant in Captain Moses Wheelock's Company, General Artemas Ward's 1st 
Regiment, Provincial Army. He served through the year under General 
Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward. April 5, 1776 he was commissioned 
Lieutenant in Captain Seth Morse's Company, Colonel John Golden's 6th 
Worcester County Regiment. In August 1777 he marched in Captain Ed- 
mund Brigham's Company, Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Worcester County 
Regiment, to reinforce the Northern army on the Bennington alarm. He 
later moved to North Brookfield and finally to Brookfield. 
member of Lieutenant James r Whipple's Company, Colonel Artemas Ward's 
Regiment, he marched from Upton to Westfield on the Fort William Henry 


have been the man of that name, son of Jesse and Bethiah Brigham, who 
was born in Westborough in 1735-6, March 21, 1757, he was a member of 
the 2nd Westborough Company, commanded by Captain Bezeleal Eager. 
From April, 7th to May 23, 175S, he was in Captain Stephen Maynard's 
Company, Colonel William Williams's Regiment. On the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775 he marched as First Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Wood's 
Company of Minute Men in General Ward's Regiment. April 2G, 1775, 
he enlisted under the same Captain in General Ward's 1st Regiment, Pro- 
vincial Army and served through the year under General Ward, and Colonel 
Jonathan Ward. April 17, 177G he was commissioned Captain of the Second 
Northborough Company, in Colonel John Golden's 6th Worcester County 
Regiment. July 2, 1777, his name appears in a list of officers in Colonel 
Job Cushing's 6th Worcester County Regiment, for service on the Benning- 
ton alarm, and he served until October 29, 1777. His name also appeared 
in a list of officers endorsed January 1, 1778. He died in Northborough 
October 5, 1828, aged 92 years, 7 months, 7 days. 

in Captain Cyprian How's Company, General Artemas Ward's Regiment, 
which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. No further record 
of him has been found. 

son of Lieu Tnant Josiah and Thankful (Harrington) Livermore. He was 
born in Weston July 11, 1740 and settled m Spencer in 1752. March 19, 
1759, at the age of 19, residence Weston, he enlisted in Colonel Elisha Jones's 
Regiment for service under General Amherst in Canada. From November 2d 
to June 7, 1759-60, he was a private in Captain Daniel Fletcher's Company, 
Colonel Frye's Regiment, at Annapolis. From January 1st to June 7, 1760 
he was a private in Captain Daniel Fletcher's Company, Colonel Frye's Reg- 
iment. From January 24th to November 17, 1761, as a resident of Weston 
he was a private in Captain Silas Brown's Company, and from November 
18, 1761, to June 17 ? 1762, he was a private in Captain John Nixin's Com- 


pany. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched, as Ensign, in 
Captain Ebenezer Mason's Company, Colonel Jonathan Warner's Regiment. 
May 12, 1775, he enlisted as First Lieutenant in Captain Seth Washburn's 
Company, General Artemas Ward's 1st Regiment, Provincial Army. He 
served through the year under General Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward. 
February 13, 1776 he was commissioned Second Leiutenant in Captain Seth 
Washburn's Company, Colonel Josiah Whitney's 2nd Worcester County 
Regiment. April 28, 1778, he was commissioned Captain of Colonel 
Samuel Denney's 1st Worcester County Regiment. From July 1, 1779 
to October 4, 1779 he served as Captain in this regiment, with the guards 
at Rutland Barracks. On December 8, 1779, he wrote a letter resigning 
his commission on account of bodily infirmity occasioned by "previous ser- 
vice for his country," and the resignation was accepted December 27, 1779. 
He later removed to East Sudbury. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT WILLIAM MORSE, of Middleborough, was the 
son of Jonas and Lucy (Eager) Morse. He was born in Marlborough, Feb- 
ruary 26, 1738. He was a member of Captain J. Weeks's 2nd Company 
of Marlborough training band, August 7, 1757. He was First Lieutenant 
in Captain Daniel Barnes's Company which marched on the Lexington 
alarm of April 19, 1775. April 26, 1775, he was engaged to serve as First 
Lieutenant under the same Captain in General Artemas Ward's 1st Regi- 
ment, Provincial Army, and served under General Ward and Colonel Jona- 
than Ward through the year. July 5, 1776 he was commissioned Captain 
in Colonel Ezekial How's 4th Middlesex County Regiment. August 20, 
1777, he marched with nine men drafted from the above regiment to re- 
inforce the Continental Army at the Northward. From October 2nd to 
November 8, 1777, he was Captain of a company of Marlborough Volun- 
teers in Colonel Jonathan Reed's 6th Middlesex County Regiment, to assist 
General Gates at the Northward. March 26, 1780 he resigned his commission 
as Captain in Colonel Cyprian How's 4th Middlesex County Regiment, 
and it was accepted April 7, 1780. He died in Marlborough, June 26, 1802, 
aged 69 years. 


He may have been the Hannaniah, son of John and Experience (Clayes) 
Parker, who was born in Shrewsbury, September 21, 1735 (called "Annan- 
ias" in Ward's "History of Shrewsbury"). He was a member of a South- 
borough Company, April 29, 1757, commanded by Colonel Timothy Brig- 
ham. April 19, 1775 he served on the Lexington alarm as Lieutenant in 
Captain Seth Morse's Company of Militia, General Artemas Ward's Regi- 
ment. August 9, 17S1 he marched as Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel 
Wright's Company, Lieutenant Colonel Commandant Luke Drury's detach- 
ed Regiment at West Point, and remained in service until his discharge, 
November 18, 1781. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ABEL PERRY of Natick, was the son of Sam- 
uel and Ruth Perry. He was born in Natick, September 16, 1736. On the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he served as Leiutenant in Captain Joseph 
Morse's Company, Colonel Samuel Bullard's Regiment. May 25, 1775 
he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain James Mellen's Company, 
General Artemas Ward's 1st Regiment, Provincial Army, having been en- 
gaged for service on the 25th of April. He served through the year under 
General Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward. "Lieut. Abel Perry' ' died in 
Natick, April 13, 180S, aged 72 years. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT ASA RICE of Shrewsbury was the son of 
Hezekiah and Mary (Taylor) Rice. He was born in Shrewsbury, March 
12, 1742. April 3, 1759, at the age of 17 years he enlisted in Captain Ste- 
phen Maynard's Company, Colonel Abraham Williams's Regiment, and 
served in Canada, under General Amherst, until November 30th of that 
year. He was First Lieutenant in Captain Job Cushing's Company 
of Minute Men and Militia in General Artemas Ward's Regiment on the 
Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775. April 28, 1775 he was engaged as Second 
Lieutenant in Captain Job Cushing's Company, General Artemas Ward's 
1st Regiment, Provincial Army, and he served through the year, under Gen- 
eral Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward. April 17, 1776 his commission 
was ordered as Captain of the 3rd Shrewsbury Company in Colonel John 


Golden's 6th Worcester County Regiment. From July 27th to August 
29, 1777 he marched as Captain of a company on the Bennington alarm in 
Colonel Job Cushing's 6th Worcester County Regiment. September 12, 
1777 he was commissioned Captain of the Second Company in the above 
named regiment, and his name appears on the list of officers of that regiment, 
endorsed January 1, 1778. He lived on the old homestead in Shrewsbury, 
and held many important positions. He died August 4, 1823 aged 81J/£ 

son of Colonel Nathaniel and Mary (Livermore) Sherman, and was born 
in Grafton, March 6, 1741. He was a private in Captain William Paige's 
Company from March 25th to December 1, 1760. His commission was 
ordered in the Provincial Congress at Watertown, May 25, 1775, as First 
Lieutenant in Captain Luke Drury's Company, General Arternas Ward's 
1st Regiment, Provincial Army. 

ably the Nathaniel, brother of Lieutenant Asaph Sherman. He was born in 
Grafton, March 4, 1732. He marched from Grafton to Westfield in August 
1757, on the Fort William Henry alarm, as Sergeant in Lieutenant James 
Whipple's Company, Colonel Arternas Ward's Regiment. From March 
13th to November 8, 1758 he was an Ensign in Captain Stephen Maynard's 
Company, Colonel William Williams's Regiment. In response to the Lex- 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as First Lieutenant in Captain 
Luke Drury's Company, Colonel Arternas Ward's Regiment, and his name 
also appeared in the same Captain's Company in General Arternas Ward's 
1st Regiment, Provincial Army, the list bearing date of May 24, 1775. 
April 17, 1776 his commissionw as ordered as Captain of the 10th (Groton) 
Company, in Colonel John Golden's 6th Worcester County Regiment. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT JOHN SMITH of Worcester may have been 
the man of that name who was born in Marlboro, and as a resident of that 
town served under Captain Timothy Houghton in Colonel Jonathan Bag- 


ley's Regiment from March 23rd to October 9, 1756, on an expedition to 
Crown Point. In 1773 he was elected a member of the Committee of 
Correspondence in Worcester. On the 19th of April, 1775, he marched as 
Second Lieutenant in Captain Timothy Bigelow's Company, General Arte- 
mas Ward's Regiment. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as First Lieutenant 
in Captain Jonas Hubbard's Company, Colonel Jonathan Ward's Regiment, 
and he served through the year under that Captain in the regiment command- 
ed by General Ward and Colonel Jonathan AVard. 

cer, was the son of John and Mary (Blair) Watson. He was born in Lei- 
cester, January 1, 1750. He was an Ensign in 1771, in the 1st Leicester 
Company, Colonel John Chandler's 1st Worcester County Regiment. On 
the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, he marched as First Lieutenant in 
Captain Seth Washburn's Company, General Artemas Ward's Regiment, 
serving 16 days. August 4, 1776, his commission was ordered as Second 
Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Green's Company (South Company in Lei- 
cester), Colonel Samuel Denny's First Worcester County Regiment. From 
September 27th to October 18, 1777, he was in Major Asa Baldwin's divis- 
ion in Colonel Samuel Denny's First Worcester County Regiment; the com- 
pany marching to reinforce the Northern Army. In February 1778 he was 
one of the Lieutenants in the company raised in Leicester, and served in 
the Continental Army. March 5, 1779, he was commissioned Captain of 
the 5th Company in Colonel Denny's 1st Worcester County Regiment. 
He died in Leicester, April 13, 1828, aged 84 years. 

of Lieutenant James and Sarah (Evans) Whipple. He was born in Graf- 
ton, November 23, 1737. He was Lieutenant in Captain Aaron Kimball's 
Company of Militia, General Artemas Ward's Regiment, which marched 
on the Lexington alarm, and he served until May 18, 1775. April 15, 1776 
he was chosen First Lieutenant in Captain Nathaniel Sherman's 10th Graf- 
ton Company, in Colonel John Golden's 6th Worcester County Regiment. 
He died in Grafton, July 28, 1808. 


kinton, served as Lieutenant in Captain John Homes's Company, Colonel 
Samuel Bullard's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775. He enlisted as Second Lieutenant in Captain James Mellen's 
Company, General Artemas Ward's Regiment in the Provincial Army, and 
he served through the year under General Ward, and Colonel Jonathan 

was the son of James and Thankful (Forbush) Bowman. He was born in 
Westborough, December 25, 1738. April 1, 1757 he was a private in Captain 
Benjamin Fay's Company (train band) of Westborough. He was Second Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Seth Morse's Company, General Artemas Ward's Regi- 
ment, which marched on the Lexington alarm, April 19, 1775, serving 14 
days. April 5, 1776 he was commissioned Second Lieutenant in Captain 
Seth Morse's 6th (Westborough) Company, Colonel John Golden's 6th 
Worcester County Regiment. 

was the son of Thomas and Mary (Stratton) Brigham. He was born in 
Marlborough, October 6, 1729. He served as corporal in the 1st Marl- 
borough Company, in Colonel Abraham Williams's Regiment, August 26, 
1757. July 1, 1762 he was Ensign in Captain Jesse Rice's (2nd Marlborough) 
Company in Colonel Artemas Ward's Regiment. On the Lexington alarm 
of April 19, 1775 he marched as Lieutenant in Captain William Brigham's 
Company, General Artemas Ward's Regiment, serving 17 days. He may 
have been, and probably was, the man of that name who enlisted October 
2, 1777 as a private in Captain William Morse's Company, Colonel Jonathan 
Reed's 6th Middlesex County Regiment, to reinforce the army under General 
Gates. He was discharged November 8, 1777. He was a selectman for 
ten years. He died in 1784. 

the son of Thomas and Sarah (Stratton) Brigham. He was born in Marl- 
borough, March 26, 1737. April 26, 1757 he was a private in Colonel Abra- 


ham Williams's 1st Marlborough Company. On the Lexington alarm, 
April 19, 1775 he marched as Second Lieutenant in Captain Daniel Barnes's 
Company. April 26, 1775 he enlisted under the same Captain in General 
Artemas Ward's 1st Regiment, Provincial Army, and he served through the 
year, under General Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward. July 5, 1776 he 
was commissioned Captain on the Second Marlborough Company, in Colonel 
Ezekiel How's 1th Middlesex County Regiment. His name appears in a list 
of captains "from whose companies men were drafted and marched August 
20, 1777 to reinforce the army at the Northward." He had died June 4, 1777. 

of Deliverance and Elizabeth Brown of Stow. He was born in the last named 
town, March 10, 1731. August 10, 1759, at the age of 28, as a resident of 
Stow he served in Colonel William Lawrence's Regiment under General 
Amherst in Canada. From April 2nd to December 2, 1759, as a resident 
of Stow, he served in Captain Leonard Whitney's Company, Brigadier Gen- 
eral Ruggles's Regiment on an expedition to Crown Point. April 19, 1775 
he marched as private in Captain Luke Drury's Company of Minute Men, 
General Artemas Ward's Regiment, and four days later enlisted as Second 
Lieutenant under the same officers, serving through the year under General 
Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward. 

of Grafton was born in Stow about 1738. April 2, 1759, as a resident of the 
last named town, age 21, he enlisted in Colonel William Lawrence's Regiment 
for service in an expedition to Lake George. September 28, 1774 he was 
chosen by the town authorities "to command a field-piece." He served 
as Second Lieutenant in Captain Aaron Kimball's Company of Minute Men, 
in General Artemas Ward's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington 
Alarm of April 19, 1775. Discharged May 18, 1775. According to a list 
of officers of the Massachusetts Militia commissioned in "1776," he was 
Second Lieutenant in Captain Nathan How's Company, Colonel Josiah 
Whitney's Second Worcester County Regiment. He may have been the 
Thomas "Davidson" who was Second Lieutenant in Captain Jonathan 


Caril's Company in April 1776, and who was reported a supernumary officer, 
April 9, 1779. This last named Thomas "Davidson" also served as First 
Lieutenant in Captain Thomas Barns's Company, Colonel Timothy Bige- 
low's 15th Regiment, Massachusetts Line, receiving his appointment Janu- 
ary 1, 1777. The date of the last muster roll in which his name appears 
was in April 1779, dated Providence, at which time he was reported a super- 
numerary. Heitman in his "Historical Register of the Officers of the Con- 
tinental Army" states that he was "omitted July 1779." 

about 1735. He was a centinel in Captain Benjamin Flagg's Company, 
Colonel Chandler's Regiment from September 24th to October 14, 1756. 
From April 9th to May 21, 1758 he was in Captain John Frye's Company, 
Colonel Timothy Ruggles's Regiment, and from August 10th to 18th, 1758 he 
was in Captain James Goodwin's Company, Colonel John Chandler, Jun- 
ior's Regiment, and marched from Worcester to Sheffield. April 2, 1759, 
at the age of twenty-four, residence Worcester, he enlisted in Colonel John 
Chandler's Regiment to serve in Canada under General x\mherst. On the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Sergeant in Captain Tim- 
othy Bigelow's Company of Minute Men, General Artemas Ward's Regiment. 
April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain Jonas Hub- 
bard's Company, General Artemas Ward's 1st Regiment, Provincial Army. 
He served through the year under General Ward and Colonel Jonathan 
Ward. February 13, 1776 he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Cap- 
tain Seth Washburn's Company which joined Colonel Josiah Whitney's 
additional Regiment. April 5, 1776 he was commissioned Captain in Col- 
onel Samuel Denny's 1st Worcester County Regiment, and July 17, 1776 
with his company of 85 men he marched to New York under command of 
Colonel Jonathan Holman, to reinforce the Continental Army. In a reg- 
imental return endorsed "Chelsea Camp, Sept. 16, 1776:" his name ap- 
pears as Captain in Colonel Jonathan Holman's regiment. From January 
1, 1777 to the date of his resignation, November 25, 1778 he was a Captain 
in Colonel Timothy Bigelow's 15th Regiment ; Continental Army. Mass- 


achusetts Archives Continental xArmy Books, Vol. 18 Page 301. Heitnian 
states that he was "omitted July 1778." 

in all probability, the man of that name who was a member of the "Weston 
train band in Captain Elisha Jones' list" April 18, 1757. He was Second 
Lieutenant in Captain Luke Drury's Company of Minute Men, General 
Artemas Ward's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of 
April 19, 1775. April 17, 1776 his commission was ordered in the Coun- 
cil as Second Lieutenant in Captain Aaron Kimball's 1st Grafton Com- 
pany in the 6th Worcester County Regiment. In a return made by Brig- 
adier General Jonathan Warner, we find that he was a First Lieutenant 
in Captain Manassa Sawyer's Company, Colonel Nicholas Dike's ''Reg- 
iment for the defense of Boston," July 27, 1776. December 1, 1776 he was 
engaged as Captain in Colonel Nicholas Dike's Regiment, said Regiment 
being raised to serve until March 1, 1777. Captain Moses Harrington died 
in Grafton, September 8, 1784. 

was the son of Captain Nathaniel and Hannah Harwood, and was born in 
Lunenberg, May 7, 1737. His father removed to Leicester. He was a 
private in Captain John Brown's Company, Colonel John Chandler's Reg- 
iment, serving from August 10th to 18th, 1757. He marched in this ser-. 
vice from Leicester to Sheffield. He was a Second Lieutenant in Captain 
Seth Washburn's Company, Colonel Jonathan Ward's Regiment on the 
Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775, serving twelve days. In the "History 
of Leicester" it is stated that "he was a respectable farmer and seems to 
have been a man of considerable influence in the town." 

son -of Luke and Lydia (Loring) Lincoln. He was born in 1746. When 
the Lexington alarm sounded April 19, 1775 he marched as Sergeant in 
Captain Thomas Newhall's Company of Militia, and his name also appears 
as an Ensign in Captain Seth Warner's Company, General Artemas Ward's 


Regiment. (Year not given, undoubtedly 1775). May 4, 1775 he was en- 
gaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain Seth Washburn's Company, Gen- 
eral Artemas Ward's 1st Regiment of the Provincial Army, and he served 
through the year under General Ward and Colonel Jonathan Ward. April 
5, 1776 he was commissioned First Lieutenant in Captain Benjamin Rich- 
ardson's North Company in Leicester, Colonel Samuel Denny's 1st Wor- 
cester County Regiment of Militia. In a regimental return dated "Chelsea 
Camp, Sept. 6th, 1776:" he was called Captain in Colonel J. Holman's Reg- 
iment. April 15, 1777 he was commissioned Captain of the First Com- 
pany in Colonel Denney's 1st Worcester County Regiment of Militia. Later 
in 1777 he was a Captain of a Company which marched under Lieutenant 
Colonel Flagg on the alarm at Bennington, serving five days. 

of Northfield was the son of Aaron and Eunice (Dwight) Lyman. He was 
born December 25, 1741. April 27, 1775 he was engaged as Second Lieu- 
tenant in Captain Eliakim Smith's Company, Colonel Jonathan Ward's Reg- 
iment. In another list dated May 25, 1775 he was called Ensign in this 
Regiment. In a return of Captain Moses Kellogg's Company, Colonel 
Jonathan Ward's Regiment, made probably in October 1775 he was reported 
as "on command to Quebec." January 1, 1777 he was appointed First 
Lieutenant in Captain Job Alvord's Company, Colonel William Shepherd's 
4th Regiment, Massachusetts Line. In a muster roll of the officers of this 
regiment, made in 1779, he was reported "retired as a supernumerary 
officer" April 1st of that year. July 20, 1779 he was engaged as Captain 
in Colonel Elisha Porter's 4th Hampshire County Regiment, serving until 
August 3, 1779, on an expedition to New London, Conn. He died in 
Greenfield September 12, 1823. 


the son of Elijah and Jemima (Skinner) Mann. He was born in that town, 

March 4, 1737-8. As a resident of Wrentham he was a private in Captain 

'"Cock's" Company, Colonel Ruggles's Regiment in 1758. From June 

13th to November 17, 1761, he was a Sergeant in Captain Silas Brown's 


Company. He served as a private in Captain Lemuel "Kollock's" Company, 
Colonel John Smith's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington Alarm, 
April 19, 1775. April 24, 1775 he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in 
Captain Moses Wheelock's Company, General Artemas Ward's Regiment 
in the Provincial Army, and he served under General Ward and Colonel 
Jonathan Ward through the year. During 1776 he was Second Lieutenant 
in Colonel Jonathan Ward's 21st Regiment, Continental Army. He died 
February 4, 1825. 

son of Joseph and Jemima Miles. He was born in that town January 12, 
1745. On the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Second 
Lieutenant in Captain Job Cushing's Company of Minute Men and Militia, 
in General Artemas Ward's Regiment, serving 23 days. He removed to 
Putney, Vt., about 1778 and was a resident of that town in 1790. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT JOEL RICE of Northborough was the son 
of Josiah and Thankful Rice. He was born in Westborough, May 3, 1733. 
March 21, 1757 he was a member of the 2nd Company of Militia for West- 
borough commanded by Captain Bezealeal Eager. He was a private in 
Captain Samuel Wood's Company of Minute Men, General Artemas Ward's 
Regiment, and marched on the Lexington alarm of April 19, 1775. De- 
cember 4, 1775 he was engaged as Second Lieutenant in Captain Silas Gates's 
Company, Colonel Jonathan Ward's Regiment, and was commissioned 
to hold that rank under the same officers, January 29, 1776. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT SETH RICE of Northborough was the 
son of Seth and Dorothy (Robinson) Rice. He was born in Marlborough, 
December 22, 1727. March 21, 1757 he was a member of Captain Bez- 
ealeal Eager's 2nd Militia Company of Marlborough. April 19, 1775 he 
marched as Second Lieutenant in Captain Samuel Wood's Company of 
Minute Men, General Artemas Ward's Regiment, serving 28 days. April 
17, 1776 his commission was ordered as First Lieutenant in Captain Timo- 
thy Brigham's 2nd Northborough Company, Colonel John Golden's 6th 


Worcester County Regiment. August 21, 1777 he was engaged as First 
Lieutenant in the same regiment, at the time under command of Colonel 
Job Cushing. From June 19th to July 13, 1778 he was First Lieutenant 
in Captain Aphraim Lyons's Company in Colonel Nathaniel Wade's Regi- 
ment for service at Rhode Island. September 3, 1779 he was appointed 
Lieutenant in Captain David Moore's Company, Colonel John Jacobs's 
(Light Infantry) Regiment, serving at Rhode Island until his discharge, 
November 18, 1779. In another list, year not given, his name appears as 
First Lieutenant in Captain Aaron Kimball's Company, which was drafted 
from Colonel John Golden's Regiment to join Colonel Josiah Whitney's or 
Colonel Nathan Sparhawk's Regiments. 

a Sergeant in Captain Samuel Wood's Company of Minute Men, General 
Artemas Ward's Regiment, which marched on the Lexington alarm of April 
19, 1775. April 26, 1775 he was engaged under the same officers as Second 
Lieutenant and he served through the year under General Ward and Col- 
onel Jonathan Ward. 

ENSIGN URIAH EAGER, JUNIOR, of Marlborough was the son 
of Uriah and Sarah (Brigham) Eager. He was born February 5, 1740. As 
Uriah Eager, Junior, he was a member of the 2nd Militia Company of Marl- 
borough commanded by Captain J. Weeks, April 7, 1757. On the Lex T 
ington alarm of April 19, 1775 he marched as Ensign in Captian Cyprian 
How's Company, General Artemas Ward's Regiment, serving until May 
4, 1775. He died in Marlborough, September 30, 1813, aged 73 years. 


on goofy* anb <$tl]et ^ubject^ 

'T^HE Ipswich Historical Society has held its twenty-fifth anniversary. 
"*■ The anniversaries of all historical societies are interesting, but the 
one at Ipswich has a peculiar charm and value. 

No one can pass through Ipswich — not even the traveller on the train — 
without seeing the quaint Whipple House with its sloping roof and gray 
brown clapboards. It is so strikingly picturesque, so entirely different 
from all houses of modern times and yet, so perfectly typical of many 
houses of the period in which it was built, that it catches the eye and holds 
the interest of even the most casual. It is in this vine clad cottage that 
the Ipswich Historical Society has found a permanent home and the docu- 
ments and furniture of colonial times which have been donated or pur- 
chased, are here safely and appropriately preserved. 

But although the Society is now so fittingly housed, it began its existence 
in no such delightful quarters. That which connects the society of today 
with the one of twenty-five years ago is its spirit of reverence for the past, 
and its eagerness to maintain mementoes of that past for the future. 

It was on the evening of April 14, 1890, that the society was organized 
at the home of Reverend T. Frank Waters, who subsequently became the 
president, and who has ever since thrown his personal effort into the society, 
so tirelessly and so faithfully that it has grown steadily. Mr. John H. 
Cogswell was the first secretary, Mr. Charles A. Sayward, Mr. J. Increase 
Horton, and Mr. Cogswell, the executive committee. 

For the first five years, the life of the society was maintained by meet- 
ings in which papers were read and the interest regarding this early colonial 


town was constantly encouraged. Then, the membership growing and the 
members becoming more ambitious, the society established itself in the 
Odd Fellows building where the postoffice had formerly been. 

Then it was that the appreciation of the historical value of Ipswich be- 
came even keener. The society placed bronze tablets at various points 
throughout the town to guide sight seers on pilgrimages that became more 
and more frequent. 

In 1897 the attention of the society was called to the ancient and de- 
caying Whipple House on Saltonstall Street. That it was an unique ex- 
ample of the finest colonial architecture was obvious, but that it was in a 
state of delapidation was equally clear. However, after an examination of 
its possibilities the society determined to take it and to remodel it in such 
a way that it would keep its old fashioned silhouette, and yet accomodate 
the rapidly growing collection of furniture, brie a brae and books relating 
to the Ipswich of two centuries ago. The purchase was made: the house 
was ready by October 1898, and ever since then the society has had the 
satisfaction of knowing that it might occupy and call its own one of the 
finest bits of old colonial architecture in New England. 

The society has grown. At the celebration of the 25th anniversary — 
held from August 6 to August 18 of this year — there were 16 life members, 
149 resident, 127 non-resident and 23 honorary members. It is commend- 
able that a town so important in the history of the old Massachusetts Bay 
Colony, so beautiful and so rich in historic interest, should have a society 
to preserve and maintain its ancient legends and possessions. 

/^VN August 9 the John Boyle O'Reilly Club gathered in Boston in formal 
^-"^ and yet intimate meeting. It was the 25th anniversary of the death 
of that poet, journalist and adventurer whose breadth and liberality of mind, 
and whose sweetness and warmth of spirit have lastingly endeared him to 


those who knew him personally and those who knew him only through his 

It is a very remarkable thing that after a quarter of a century — when 
even the names on most tomb stones are becoming blurred — that a club 
which was founded on affection for a single individual should still be strong 
and unified. And it is a significant tribute that in this day of strong racial 
feeling that distinguished citizens like A. Shuman — a Hebrew — and Sam- 
uel J. Elder — a New Englander — should have been proud to testify to their 
fondness and respect to an Irishman, who was also the most loyal of Ameri- 

The John Boyle O'Reilly Club grew, originally, out of a committee of 
those of his friends and co-workers who, on his death organized with the 
purpose ol erecting a suitable memorial to him. This memorial has now 
been finished and stands at the Boylston Street entrance to the Fenway — 
one of Daniel C. French's best pieces of work. 

At this memorable meeting of a memorable club, Captain Henry C. 
Hathaway — he who took the exiled poet aboard his vessel, — the New Bed- 
ford Whaler the Gazelle — hoisted the American flag over him and ianded 
him on American soil, was present. So also were Governor Walsh, Mayor 
Curley, Judge Charles A. DeCourcey of the Supreme Court and George 
F. Babbitt. It was such a meeting as this most lovable of democrats 
would have appreciated: many creeds and many racial and political affilia- 
tions: varying grades of social and intellectual attainment — a character 
istic group to pay honor to one whose spacious nature understand all types 
of humanity. 

Perhaps those who are too young to remember one whose genial spirit 
has so endeared him to the land of his adoptioD, may best understand him 
by his own lines: 

He lost no friend; 

Who loved him once, loved on to the end. 
He mourned all selfish and shrewd endeavor; 
But he never injured a weak one — never. 
When censure was passed, he was kindly dumb; 
He was never so wise but a fault would come; 


He was never so old that he failed to enjoy 

The games and the dreams he had loved when a boy. 

He erred and was sorry; but never drew 

A trusting heart from the pure and true. 

When friends look back from the years to be, 

God grant they may say the same of me. 

That this prayer was answered is touchingly attested by the Club which 
bears his name and gladly perpetuates his memory. 

"VTOTHING vitalizes a cause like a magnetic personality in its leader: 
*** and few things enhance a personality like allegiance to a striking 
cause. Rev. Dr. Antoinette Brown Blackwell, who at the age of ninety 
is still preaching, is an excellent example of both a cause and a personality. 
Born in Henrietta, New York, in a log cabin ninety years ago, Antoin- 
ette Brown came from the same family, on her mother's side, as did S. F. B. 
Morse, inventor of the electric telegraph, and has all her life been associated 
with brilliant and progressive people. She has been witness to all the 
changes produced by steam power and electric power as well as to an 
almost completely changed social order. At sixteen, Antoinette Brown was 
teaching school earning enough money to get through an academy. When 
she finished the academy she earned enough money to get through Oberlin 
College, where she met Lucy Stone, the pioneer advocate of women's rights. 
Later the two friends married the Blackwell brothers. But although Lucy 
Stone was even then ardent in the cause of suffrage for women, Antoinette 
Brown was seeking to a-ccomplish the same end by different means. She 
determined to become an ordained minister of the gospel. She took the 
theological course at Oberlin — there was no rule against that — but she was 
not permitted a degree or ordination. And so, for the time being, she 
turned her attention to women's rights. At the first Woman's Suffrage 
Convention in Worcester, Mass., in 1850, she made an impassioned address. 
She is the only living survivor of that convention. 

She then started out on a campaign of lecturing still cherishing the hope 
of securing her ordination some day. No church would defy the popular 
sentiment against woman preachers. 


At the time of the world's first temperance convention she was invited 
to address the congregation. She had already proved her oratorical ability 
in lecturing for the suffrage cause and against slavery and she was now 
ready to take up temperance with equal ardor. But the convention was 
chiefly composed of ministers who did not like the idea of having a woman 
address them from the platform. They protested for three solid hours, 
while she stood waiting for a chance to speak. The next day the same scene 
was enacted. But the very conspicuousness into which she was thrust by 
this proceeding, reacted to her advantage. Horace Greeley and Charles 
A. Dana offered her a church in New York city with a salary of SI 000 a year, 
and at the same time a smaller church in South Butler, New York, offered 
her their pulpit. It was in South Butler that she was ordained and took 
up her work. At the end of a year she resigned her pastorate because her 
ideas were changing and she was drifting from Congregationalism to Uni- 
tarianism. She became a sort of itinerant preacher and lecturer on aboli- 
tion and woman's rights and temperance. Then in 1856, she married, had 
six children and wrote nine books. 

Today she is still active and ardent. Although her associates are gone — 
Wendell Phillips and William Lloyd Garrison, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and 
Julia Ward Howe, she still holds fast to her convictions, to her memories 
and to her hopes, and still occasionally addresses a congregation in her capa- 
city of the first woman to be ordained to the ministry in the United States. 

NOT only Harvard and Cambridge, but Massachusetts and the whole 
United States are incalculably richer since the great gift of the 
Widener Memorial Library, the gift of the mother of Harry Elkins 
Widener, in memory of her son who was a lover of books and a graduate 
of Harvard and one of the victims of the Titanic disaster. This superb 
building — as beautiful as any Greek temple in its majestic and dignified 
proportions — is the largest and finest university library in the world, and 
only three others in this country can rank with it in size or number of vol- 
umes, these three being the Congressional Library at Washington, and the 
Public Libraries of New York and Boston. 


But it is not merely the vast capacity of the Memorial — it will hold 
about 2,500,000 volumes, — that distinguishes it. It is one of the most 
scholarly collections of books in existence. The Congressional Library 
at Washington is obliged to give room to two copies of every copyrighted 
pamphlet and book; the British Museum must accept every printed thing 
that the presses offer. But the Widener Library compiles only two kinds 
of books — the literature of knowledge and the literature of the imagination. 

Beside the books from the old Harvard library, and the special collec- 
tion which Mr. Widener himself took such joy in finding and purchasing, 
the famous theatrical memorabilia which Robert Gould Shaw has spent years 
in collecting, has been presented. Mr. Shaw, who graduated from Har- 
vard in 1869, spent years collecting in England, France, and Germany and 
his gift included 100,000 prints, and equal number of photographs; 250,- 
000 playbills and 10,000 autograph letters. 

The Library was formally presented to the College last June at the time 
of the Commencement exercises, and it is impossible to estimate its value 
to all scholars in this country, for all time to come. 

WHEN last August a thousand suffragists journeyed to West Brookfield 
to unveil a tablet placed upon the birthplace of Lucy Stone, an inter- 
esting personality on the history of New England was recalled. The bronze 
tablet bears the inscription: 






BORN AUGUST 13, 1818 

MARRIED MAY 1, 1855 

DIED OCTOBER 18. 1893 




This does, briefly, tell the significance of the tablet, but those whose 
memories go back half a century will realize more fully what it means. 
When Lucy Stone started out in her campaign of working for woman's suff- 


rage it was indeed a pioneer task and she was a most conspicuous figure. 
Her marriage into the Blackwell family did not impede her career any more 
than did Antoinette Brown's marriage into the same family impede hers. 
They both labored tirelessly for the object nearest their hearts, and had 
the satisfaction of seeing their labors bear fruit— at least iri the western 
part of the country. 

On the day of the unveiling of the memorial tablet, almost a hundred 
years after her birth, the house was decked with yellow and white bunting 
— the suffrage colors — and so also were the automobiles that came from 
many nearby cities and towns. 

Prominent speakers in the suffrage cause addressed the gathering who 
represented many states in the Union. Alice Stone Blackwell, daughter 
of Lucy Stone, turned the first sod for the planting of the campaign ever- 
green tree, and unveiled the tablet. 

QENTIMENT and reminiscence were both stirred last summer by the dis- 
^ mantling and destruction of the once famous sloop-of-war Portsmouth. 
Launched at the Portsmouth navy yard in 1843, and towed back there in 
1915, she was sold for her junk for a few thousand dollars, and was then 
burned. The Portsmouth began her romantic career seventy years ago bv 
taking possession of San Francisco Bay during the war with Mexico; by 
going with Commodore Perry to Japan ; by reducing the barrier forts at 
Canton, and assisting Farragut at New Orleans. Then gradually she was 
superceded by the modern armored war ship. She became a coast survey 
vessel, a training ship and finally a hospital boat. 

But in spite of her historic career no historical society could be found 
which was willing to maintain and preserve her, although many individuals 
and newspapers protested against her violent end, and for a while it was 
rumored that either San Francisco, or Portsmouth, New Hampshire, would 
take her. But no one coming forward, she was stripped of her metal, set 
fire to, the photographers and moving picture men her most faithful atten- 
dants at this final and spectacular ceremony. 


T? D I TORS of the Massachusetts Magazine: 

■" I have read in the New York Times an editorial which very much meets 
my approval regarding the manner in which Massachusetts should not cele- 
brate in 1920 the 300th anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers 
at Plymouth. 

It would be a tragic pity to let this time and opportunity be lost forever, 
to build an adequate memorial to those heroic figures who exerted through 
their posterity so great an influence on American history. 

This great "melting pot" of ours is getting so full and bubbling so hard, 
there may not be enough of the original stock left to influence any special 
interest in the quadricentennial celebration a hundred years hence. There is 
so much new literature today such as "The Conquering Jew," by John Foster 
Fraser, "The Scotch Irish in America" by Henry Jones Ford (with their 
large claims for what the Jews and the Scotch Irish have clone for America) 
and "The Other Side of the Revolution" by James H. Stark; so much criti- 
cism of our national hymns; and such frequent demand from the immi- 
grant-American for revision and deletion of our school text books, that per- 
chance the accepted historians of today may be entirely superceded by the 
year 2020. It is not difficult to imagine that traditions accepted today may 
become totally discredited on the safe assertion that there is "no evidence 
to substantiate it," and the accepted version may be a new "true story" 
of the Pilgrims; in fact, the American people of that age may not care to 
observe the 400th anniversary at all — may in fact, decide to forget it! 

Therefore, I say, Messrs. editors, let the State of Massachusetts estab- 
lish some noble heroic memorial to these men that will be a beacon of re- 
membrance and education to not only our own offspring, but to the new 
Americans whom it is our duty to assimilate, and inspire as best we may 
with some of our own reverence for the men who settled Plymouth Colony. 

I do not think such a memorial should be at Plymouth or at Boston. 
I think it should be planted in Massachusetts Bay, where it would, in col- 
ossal proportions, proclaim its message to every incoming ship, and afar 
to every coast wise vessel passing up and down the New England Coast — 
of which there are said to be 70,000 every year. It should be large enough 



to be seen from every eminence in each village and town on the bay, from 
Provincetown to Rockport. 

Build of concrete and steel, and build in such enormous magnitude that 
it will be likened to the Colossus' of Rhodes, the Olympian Jupiter at 
Athens, or the eternal Pyramids in Egypt. 

Perhaps a Puritan, somewhat after St. Gaudens statue at Springfield, 
would be the best selection for such a titanic figure. 



But I. can think of no more original and suitable subject for such a me- 
morial than the Mayflower itself — the most important ship that ever float- 
ed on the bosom of the Atlantic, judged in the light of the history that has 
been made in its wake. 

There are several inspiring models of the little ship which might be used. 
I take the liberty of enclosing two herewith, which I hope you may find of 
enough interest to publish with this letter. 

There are several small unimportant islands in Boston harbor which 
could be taken for this monument, just as an island was taken for Bar- 


tholdi's Statue of Liberty in New York harbor. If built on a low foundation 
and built as high as the Woolworth tower in New York (750 feet) either 
of these designs would at a distance have the appearance of a ship lying 
naturally at anchor. 

I am not sure but that the sculptor's genious could plan a walled eleva- 
tion which would allow spaces for mammoth pictures in bas relief, (or possi- 
bly in colored glass) depicting such scenes as Weir's admirable painting in 
the rotunda of the Capital at Washington, showing the humble group 
on their knees in prayer, before the final departure from Holland; the sign- 
ing of the compact ; the landing, etc. 

The outlines of the ship could be lighted by electric lights at night and 
possibly the scenes in stained glass could be illuminated from within. These 
could be such works of art that one of the features of "doing Boston" would 
be a twenty-five cent trip down the harbor on special motor boats to see 
these pictures; and every excursion steamer would go out of its course to 
pass near, day or night. 

The educational potentialities of this plan would be almost without 
limit because the interior of the enormous hull could be developed into one 
.of the most interesting museums in the world. To begin with a statue in 
right proportions of every man, woman and child of the 101 passengers could 
be put aboard; Standish, Brewster, Bradford, Carver, Winslow, being among 
the first. Every Mayflower family organization in the country being in- 
vited to contribute what it conceived to be a composite family likeness of 
each of the other passengers. 

In a gallery arranged for the purpose could be a series of oil paintings 
or mural decorations, portraying a part of the Pilgrims story not so familiar 
to the public as Weir's painting, and later incidents of the Pilgrim movement; 

(a) An imaginative picture of the manor house at Scrooby, in North 
Nottinghamshire, where gathered the first dissenters. 

(6) Another, of the ruins visitors to the spot see today. 

(c) An imaginative picture of the deposed Clifton and John Robinson 
as preachers, and Bradford and Brewster among the attendants at a meeting 
in the parlor of the former's home. 



(d) Several pictures to show the determination of the "fool king" to 
harry them out of the country — spying on their houses; arresting; im- 

(e) The attempt to leave for Holland to rid themselves of the perse- 
cution — the arrest in the night of the whole company, after their goods were 
on the ship. 

(f) The later flight in the Dutchman's vessel, when they had to leave 
half their number on shore to escape the King's officers. 

(g) Pictures of their peaceful life at Amsterdam and Ley den — the 
University — Brewster the printer — the new adherents to their cause; Car- 
ver and his bride, Winslow and his bride, and Standish the soldier. 

(h) Their departure from Delft Haven in the Speedwell. 

Then a still more dramatic and expressive means of impressing the 
minds of school children (who doubtless would pilgrimage to such a place 
in bodies every week of the school year) and the dimmest intelligences of 
even those who could not speak our language, would be to arrange tableaux 
in plaster or in wax figures, showing mam' of the thrilling scenes of hardship 
and adventure, which the Pilgrims passed through after they had settled on 
New England' 's shores; such as building the first houses; the welcome 
of the Indian Samoset ; the trip up the shore of Miles Standish and party 
in a shallop ; the brush with the frightened Indians in ambush; finding of 
the dismantled summer camp and the buried corn, some of the sad scenes 
that attended the sickness of all but six of the party, and the death of 
one-half their number during that first winter. 

In a word: Such a series of life-sized figure-pictures as will show the dull 
and the indifferent that this free country as it stands cost something in sacri- 
fice and endeavor. 

The first exclamation at this proposal will be its cost. But I doubt not 
that the bare statue itself could be built at less than two-thirds what would 
eventually be expended on a great industrial exposition, which seems to 
have been the most talked of suggestion heretofore. 

The bas relief, mural decorations, stained glass, tableaux and entire 
interior, could be the work of years hence. It is well known that many 
of the world's memorials, mausoleums, and cathedrals have been the work 
of scores of years, before final completion. 

Hoping that the stout-hearted will not take too seriously the pessi- 
mism I allowed myself to resort to in the beginning of this letter, I beg 



to subscribe myself to this sentiment of Roger Walcott: "May God in 
His mercy, grant that the moral impulse which founded this nation may 
never cease to control its destiny/' 

Henry W. White 
Boston, Oct. 13, 1915. 

THE editorial referred to, in the New York Times was as follows: 
"There is still a strong disposition in Massachusetts to celebrate in 1920 
the 300th anniversary of the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers by holding at 
Plymouth a world's industrial exhibition on a very large scale. Plans for 
the erection of certain permanent structures to house the exhibits and the 
machinery are now under consideration. The American imagination, as 
far as celebrations are concerned, seems unable to get beyond the exposi- 
tion idea. Yet we know that the minds of many of the foremost New Eng- 
enders are already at work on the scheme for the celebration of this anni- 
versary, second to none in interest. It seems that a better idea may yet 
be hit upon. There have been too many world's fairs already and the world 
has grown tired of them. The memory of the Founders of New England 
is not chiefly associated with material progress. A world's fair represents 
little more. It seems that music and the fine arts and pageantry combined 
might be used to better purpose in celebrating the landing of those stern 
men who sought a distant home in the unknown wilds for freedom to wor- 
ship God in their own way. 

"Yet whether or not the New Englanders are able to conceive and put 
in execution a better plan for their celebration than an industrial exhibition, 
it is not to be doubted that the whole country will be stirred by the event. 
Since 1876 we have had no national anniversary to celebrate the appeal of 
which is so strong and so general. Descendants of the Pilgrims carried their 
traits and their zeal all over the country. They blazed the great trails. 
The anniversary will have much more than sectional significance. All the 
more reason why the celebration should be worthy of the occasion. There 
are four more years for preparation, and we shall continue to hope that the 
exhibition idea will give way to a less conventional and more appropriate 


Prepared by Charles A. Flagg 

Authors' names italicized 

Adams, Gen. Charles Francis, 106. 

Babbitt, George F., Governor David I. 
Walsh, 159. 

Beehunter's troubles, An early, 84. 

Blackwell, Dr. Antoinette Brown, 204. 

Bookseller, An old Boston — George E. 
Littlefield, 177. 

Bowles family, 109. 

Brackett, Hon. John Q. A., 4. 

Century of Peace, 3. 

Church troubles in ye olden times, 59. 

Criticism and comment department, 
52, 105, 153, 201. 

Dennis, Albert IF., John N. McClintock, 

The Springfield Republican and 

the Bowles family, 109. 

Edwards, Agnes, Mrs. James T. Fields, 9. 

Everts, Truman C, 22. 

Fields, Mrs. James T., 9. 

Flagg, Charles A., Massachusetts Pio- 
neers in Michigan, 43. 

Gardner, Frank A., M. D., Col. John Pat- 
erson's regiment, 27, 75. 

General Artemus Ward's and Col- 
onel Jonathan Ward's regiments, 
123, 184. 

Geiser, Prof. Karl F., New England and 
the Western Reserve, 91. 

Ghent, Treaty of, 3. 

Governors of Massachusetts, two popu- 
lar, 167. 

Grant, John F., 18. 

Guild, Hon. Curtis, 107, 167. 

Hauser, Samuel T., 17. 

Wiggins, Charles Arthur, LL. M., A Cen- 
tury of Peace, 3. 

Mary Harrod Northend, 


Ipswich Historical Society, 201. 
John Boyle O'Reilly Club, 202. 
Langford, Nathaniel Pitt. 16. 
Littlefield, George E., An old Boston 

Bookseller, ±77. 
Long, Hon John Davis, 3, 167. 
Massachusetts Pioneers in Michigan, 43. 
Massachusetts, Two popular Governors 

of 167. 
McClintock, John N., 49. 
Michigan, Massachusetts Pioneers in, 43. 
Montana, First school, 21. 

first newspaper, 22. 

New England and the Western Reserve, 

Northend. Mary Harrod, 23. 
Paterson's regiment, 1775, 27, 75. 
Pea^e. A Centurv of. 3. 
Phillips, Wendell. 156. 
Preparedness, Military, in the American 

Revolution, 155. 
Reminiscences of Four-Score Years, 15. 
Springfield Republican, the, and the 

Bowles family, 109. 
Stone. Lucy, 206. 
Thompson, Judge Franics McGee, An 

early bee hunter's troubles, 84. 
-Reminiscences of Four-Score 

Years, 15. 
Walsh, Governor David I., 159. 
Ward's regiment, 1775, 123, 184. 
Waters, Rev. Thomas Franklin, Church 

troubles in ye olden times, 59. 
Western Reserve, New England and the 

Widener Memorial Library, 205. 
Wilder, Frank Jones. An old Boston 

bookseller, George E. Littlefield, as 

I knew him, 177. 


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